A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W Y Z |
|To use the dictionary simply click on the desired alphabetical link at the top of the page, and then scroll down to the desired word or phrase. (Selected words are from the Easton's Bible Dictionary courtesy of Christian Classics Ethereal Library at Calvin College). Note: Only words contained in the Book of Revelation are listed.
Alpha, the first letter of the Greek
alphabet, as Omega is the last. These letters occur in
the text of Rev. 1:8,11; 21:6; 22:13, and are
represented by "Alpha" and "Omega"
respectively (omitted in R.V., 1:11). They mean
"the first and last." (Comp. Heb. 12:2; Isa.
41:4; 44:6; Rev. 1:11,17; 2:8.) In the symbols of the
early Christian Church these two letters are frequently
combined with the cross or with Christ's monogram
to denote his divinity.
Destruction, the Hebrew name (equivalent
to the Greek Apollyon, i.e., destroyer) of "the
angel of the bottomless pit" (Rev. 9:11). It is
rendered "destruction" in Job 28:22; 31:12;
26:6; Prov. 15:11; 27:20. In the last three of these
passages the Revised Version retains the word
"Abaddon." We may regard this word as a
personification of the idea of destruction, or as
sheol, the realm of the dead.
This word is used, (1.) To express the
idea that the Egyptians considered themselves as
defiled when they ate with strangers (Gen. 43:32). The
Jews subsequently followed the same practice, holding
it unlawful to eat or drink with foreigners (John
18:28; Acts 10:28; 11:3).
(2.) Every shepherd was "an
abomination" unto the Egyptians (Gen. 46:34). This
aversion to shepherds, such as the Hebrews, arose
probably from the fact that Lower and Middle Egypt had
formerly been held in oppressive subjection by a tribe
of nomad shepherds (the Hyksos), who had only recently
been expelled, and partly also perhaps from this other
fact that the Egyptians detested the lawless habits of
these wandering shepherds.
(3.) Pharaoh was so moved by the fourth
plague, that while he refused the demand of Moses, he
offered a compromise, granting to the Israelites
permission to hold their festival and offer their
sacrifices in Egypt. This permission could not be
accepted, because Moses said they would have to
sacrifice "the abomination of the Egyptians"
(Ex. 8:26); i.e., the cow or ox, which all the
Egyptians held as sacred, and which they regarded it as
sacrilegious to kill.
(4.) Daniel (11:31), in that section of
his prophecies which is generally interpreted as
referring to the fearful calamities that were to fall
on the Jews in the time of Antiochus Epiphanes, says,
"And they shall place the abomination that maketh
desolate." Antiochus Epiphanes caused an altar to
be erected on the altar of burnt-offering, on which
sacrifices were offered to Jupiter Olympus. (Comp. 1
Macc. 1:57). This was the abomination of the desolation
of Jerusalem. The same language is employed in Dan.
9:27 (comp. Matt. 24:15), where the reference is
probably to the image-crowned standards which the
Romans set up at the east gate of the temple (A.D. 70),
and to which they paid idolatrous honours. "Almost
the entire religion of the Roman camp consisted in
worshipping the ensign, swearing by the ensign, and in
preferring the ensign before all other gods."
These ensigns were an "abomination" to the
Jews, the "abomination of desolation."
This word is also used symbolically of
sin in general (Isa. 66:3); an idol (44:19); the
ceremonies of the apostate Church of Rome (Rev. 17:4);
a detestable act (Ezek. 22:11).
Satan is styled the "accuser of the
brethren" (Rev. 12:10. Comp. Job 1:6; Zech. 3:1),
as seeking to uphold his influence among men by
bringing false charges against Christians, with the
view of weakening their influence and injuring the
cause with which they are identified. He was regarded
by the Jews as the accuser of men before God, laying to
their charge the violations of the law of which they
were guilty, and demanding their punishment. The same
Greek word, rendered "accuser," is found in
John 8:10 (but omitted in the Revised Version); Acts
23:30, 35; 24:8; 25:16, 18, in all of which places it
is used of one who brings a charge against
Conjugal infidelity. An adulterer was a
man who had illicit intercourse with a married or a
betrothed woman, and such a woman was an adulteress.
Intercourse between a married man and an unmarried
woman was fornication. Adultery was regarded as a great
social wrong, as well as a great sin.
The Mosaic law (Num. 5:11-31) prescribed
that the suspected wife should be tried by the ordeal
of the "water of jealousy." There is,
however, no recorded instance of the application of
this law. In subsequent times the Rabbis made various
regulations with the view of discovering the guilty
party, and of bringing about a divorce. It has been
inferred from John 8:1-11 that this sin became very
common during the age preceding the destruction of
Idolatry, covetousness, and apostasy are
spoken of as adultery spiritually (Jer. 3:6, 8, 9;
Ezek. 16:32; Hos. 1:2:3; Rev. 2:22). An apostate church
is an adulteress (Isa. 1:21; Ezek. 23:4, 7, 37), and
the Jews are styled "an adulterous
generation" (Matt. 12:39). (Comp. Rev.
The atmosphere, as opposed to the higher
regions of the sky (1 Thess. 4:17; Rev. 9:2; 16:17).
This word occurs once as the rendering of the Hebrew
ruah (Job 41:16); elsewhere it is the rendering of
shamaiyim, usually translated "heavens."
The expression "to speak into the
air" (1 Cor. 14:9) is a proverb denoting to speak
in vain, as to "beat the air" (1 Cor. 9:26)
denotes to labour in vain.
The Greek form (Rev. 19:1, 3, 4, 6) of
the Hebrew Hallelujah = Praise ye Jehovah, which begins
or ends several of the psalms (106, 111, 112, 113,
(Heb. mizbe'ah, from a word meaning
"to slay"), any structure of earth (Ex.
20:24) or unwrought stone (20:25) on which sacrifices
were offered. Altars were generally erected in
conspicuous places (Gen. 22:9; Ezek. 6:3; 2 Kings
23:12; 16:4; 23:8; Acts 14:13). The word is used in
Heb. 13:10 for the sacrifice offered upon it-the
sacrifice Christ offered.
Paul found among the many altars erected
in Athens one bearing the inscription, "To the
unknown God" (Acts 17:23), or rather "to an
[i.e., some] unknown God." The reason for this
inscription cannot now be accurately determined. It
afforded the apostle the occasion of proclaiming the
gospel to the "men of Athens."
The first altar we read of is that
erected by Noah (Gen. 8:20). Altars were erected by
Abraham (Gen. 12:7; 13:4; 22:9), by Isaac (Gen. 26:25),
by Jacob (33:20; 35:1, 3), and by Moses (Ex. 17:15,
In the tabernacle, and afterwards in the
temple, two altars were erected.
(1.) The altar of burnt offering (Ex.
30:28), called also the "brasen altar" (Ex.
39:39) and "the table of the Lord" (Mal.
This altar, as erected in the tabernacle,
is described in Ex. 27:1-8. It was a hollow square, 5
cubits in length and in breadth, and 3 cubits in
height. It was made of shittim wood, and was overlaid
with plates of brass. Its corners were ornamented with
"horns" (Ex. 29:12; Lev. 4:18).
In Ex. 27:3 the various utensils
appertaining to the altar are enumerated. They were
made of brass. (Comp. 1 Sam. 2:13, 14; Lev. 16:12; Num.
In Solomon's temple the altar was of
larger dimensions (2 Chr. 4:1. Comp. 1 Kings 8:22, 64;
9:25), and was made wholly of brass, covering a
structure of stone or earth. This altar was renewed by
Asa (2 Chr. 15:8). It was removed by Ahaz (2 Kings
16:14), and "cleansed" by Hezekiah, in the
latter part of whose reign it was rebuilt. It was
finally broken up and carried away by the Babylonians
After the return from captivity it was
re-erected (Ezra 3:3, 6) on the same place where it had
formerly stood. (Comp. 1 Macc. 4:47.) When Antiochus
Epiphanes pillaged Jerusalem the altar of burnt
offering was taken away.
Again the altar was erected by Herod, and
remained in its place till the destruction of Jerusalem
by the Romans (70 A.D.).
The fire on the altar was not permitted
to go out (Lev. 6:9).
In the Mosque of Omar, immediately
underneath the great dome, which occupies the site of
the old temple, there is a rough projection of the
natural rock, of about 60 feet in its extreme length,
and 50 in its greatest breadth, and in its highest part
about 4 feet above the general pavement. This rock
seems to have been left intact when Solomon's
temple was built. It was in all probability the site of
the altar of burnt offering. Underneath this rock is a
cave, which may probably have been the granary of
Araunah's threshing-floor (1 Chr. 21:22).
(2.) The altar of incense (Ex. 30:1-10),
called also "the golden altar" (39:38; Num.
4:11), stood in the holy place "before the vail
that is by the ark of the testimony." On this
altar sweet spices were continually burned with fire
taken from the brazen altar. The morning and the
evening services were commenced by the high priest
offering incense on this altar. The burning of the
incense was a type of prayer (Ps. 141:2; Rev. 5:8; 8:3,
This altar was a small movable table,
made of acacia wood overlaid with gold (Ex. 37:25, 26).
It was 1 cubit in length and breadth, and 2 cubits in
In Solomon's temple the altar was
similar in size, but was made of cedar-wood (1 Kings
6:20; 7:48) overlaid with gold. In Ezek. 41:22 it is
called "the altar of wood." (Comp. Ex.
In the temple built after the Exile the
altar was restored. Antiochus Epiphanes took it away,
but it was afterwards restored by Judas Maccabaeus (1
Macc. 1:23; 4:49). Among the trophies carried away by
Titus on the destruction of Jerusalem the altar of
incense is not found, nor is any mention made of it in
Heb. 9. It was at this altar Zacharias ministered when
an angel appeared to him (Luke 1:11). It is the only
altar which appears in the heavenly temple (Isa. 6:6;
(Ezek. 1:4, 27; 8:2. Heb., hashmal,
rendered by the LXX. elektron, and by the Vulgate
electrum), a metal compounded of silver and gold. Some
translate the word by "polished brass,"
others "fine brass," as in Rev. 1:15; 2:18.
It was probably the mixture now called electrum. The
word has no connection, however, with what is now
called amber, which is a gummy substance, reckoned as
belonging to the mineral kingdom though of vegetable
origin, a fossil resin.
This Hebrew word means firm, and hence
also faithful (Rev. 3:14). In Isa. 65:16, the
Authorized Version has "the God of truth,"
which in Hebrew is "the God of Amen." It is
frequently used by our Saviour to give emphasis to his
words, where it is translated "verily."
Sometimes, only, however, in John's Gospel, it is
repeated, "Verily, verily." It is used as an
epithet of the Lord Jesus Christ (Rev. 3:14).
It is found singly and sometimes doubly
at the end of prayers (Ps. 41:13; 72:19; 89:52), to
confirm the words and invoke the fulfilment of them. It
is used in token of being bound by an oath (Num. 5:22;
Deut. 27:15-26; Neh. 5:13; 8:6; 1 Chr. 16:36). In the
primitive churches it was common for the general
audience to say "Amen" at the close of the
prayer (1 Cor. 14:16).
The promises of God are Amen; i.e., they
are all true and sure (2 Cor. 1:20).
One of the precious stones in the
breastplate of the high priest (Ex. 28:19; 39:12), and
in the foundation of the New Jerusalem (Rev. 21:20).
The ancients thought that this stone had the power of
dispelling drunkenness in all who wore or touched it,
and hence its Greek name formed from a_,
"privative," and _methuo, "to get
drunk." Its Jewish name, ahlamah', was derived
by the rabbins from the Hebrew word halam, "to
dream," from its supposed power of causing the
wearer to dream.
It is a pale-blue crystallized quartz,
varying to a dark purple blue. It is found in Persia
and India, also in different parts of Europe.
A word signifying, both in the Hebrew and
Greek, a "messenger," and hence employed to
denote any agent God sends forth to execute his
purposes. It is used of an ordinary messenger (Job
1:14: 1 Sam. 11:3; Luke 7:24; 9:52), of prophets (Isa.
42:19; Hag. 1:13), of priests (Mal. 2:7), and ministers
of the New Testament (Rev. 1:20).
It is also applied to such impersonal
agents as the pestilence (2 Sam. 24:16, 17; 2 Kings
19:35), the wind (Ps. 104:4).
But its distinctive application is to
certain heavenly intelligences whom God employs in
carrying on his government of the world. The name does
not denote their nature but their office as messengers.
The appearances to Abraham at Mamre (Gen. 18:2, 22.
Comp. 19:1), to Jacob at Peniel (Gen. 32:24, 30), to
Joshua at Gilgal (Josh. 5:13, 15), of the Angel of the
Lord, were doubtless manifestations of the Divine
presence, "foreshadowings of the
incarnation," revelations before the "fulness
of the time" of the Son of God.
(1.) The existence and orders of angelic
beings can only be discovered from the Scriptures.
Although the Bible does not treat of this subject
specially, yet there are numerous incidental details
that furnish us with ample information. Their personal
existence is plainly implied in such passages as Gen.
16:7, 10, 11; Judg. 13:1-21; Matt. 28:2-5; Heb. 1:4,
These superior beings are very numerous.
"Thousand thousands," etc. (Dan. 7:10; Matt.
26:53; Luke 2:13; Heb. 12:22, 23). They are also spoken
of as of different ranks in dignity and power (Zech.
1:9, 11; Dan. 10:13; 12:1; 1 Thess. 4:16; Jude 1:9;
Eph. 1:21; Col. 1:16).
(2.) As to their nature, they are spirits
(Heb. 1:14), like the soul of man, but not incorporeal.
Such expressions as "like the angels" (Luke
20:36), and the fact that whenever angels appeared to
man it was always in a human form (Gen. 18:2; 19:1, 10;
Luke 24:4; Acts 1:10), and the titles that are applied
to them ("sons of God," Job 1:6; 38:7; Dan.
3:25; comp. 28) and to men (Luke 3:38), seem all to
indicate some resemblance between them and the human
race. Imperfection is ascribed to them as creatures
(Job 4:18; Matt. 24:36; 1 Pet. 1:12). As finite
creatures they may fall under temptation; and
accordingly we read of "fallen angels." Of
the cause and manner of their "fall" we are
wholly ignorant. We know only that "they left
their first estate" (Matt. 25:41; Rev. 12:7,9),
and that they are "reserved unto judgement"
(2 Pet. 2:4). When the manna is called
"angels' food," this is merely to denote
its excellence (Ps. 78:25). Angels never die (Luke
20:36). They are possessed of superhuman intelligence
and power (Mark 13:32; 2 Thess. 1:7; Ps. 103:20). They
are called "holy" (Luke 9:26),
"elect" (1 Tim. 5:21). The redeemed in glory
are "like unto the angels" (Luke 20:36). They
are not to be worshipped (Col. 2:18; Rev. 19:10).
(3.) Their functions are manifold. (a) In
the widest sense they are agents of God's
providence (Ex. 12:23; Ps. 104:4; Heb. 11:28; 1 Cor.
10:10; 2 Sam. 24:16; 1 Chr. 21:16; 2 Kings 19:35; Acts
12:23). (b) They are specially God's agents in
carrying on his great work of redemption. There is no
notice of angelic appearances to man till after the
call of Abraham. From that time onward there are
frequent references to their ministry on earth (Gen.
18; 19; 24:7, 40; 28:12; 32:1). They appear to rebuke
idolatry (Judg. 2:1-4), to call Gideon (Judg. 6:11,
12), and to consecrate Samson (13:3). In the days of
the prophets, from Samuel downward, the angels appear
only in their behalf (1 Kings 19:5; 2 Kings 6:17; Zech.
1-6; Dan. 4:13, 23; 10:10, 13, 20, 21).
The Incarnation introduces a new era in
the ministrations of angels. They come with their Lord
to earth to do him service while here. They predict his
advent (Matt. 1:20; Luke 1:26-38), minister to him
after his temptation and agony (Matt. 4:11; Luke
22:43), and declare his resurrection and ascension
(Matt. 28:2-8; John 20:12, 13; Acts 1:10, 11). They are
now ministering spirits to the people of God (Heb.
1:14; Ps. 34:7; 91:11; Matt. 18:10; Acts 5:19; 8:26;
10:3; 12:7; 27:23). They rejoice over a penitent sinner
(Luke 15:10). They bear the souls of the redeemed to
paradise (Luke 16:22); and they will be the ministers
of judgement hereafter on the great day (Matt. 13:39,
41, 49; 16:27; 24:31). The passages (Ps. 34:7, Matt.
18:10) usually referred to in support of the idea that
every individual has a particular guardian angel have
no such meaning. They merely indicate that God employs
the ministry of angels to deliver his people from
affliction and danger, and that the angels do not think
it below their dignity to minister even to children and
to the least among Christ's disciples.
The "angel of his presence"
(Isa. 63:9. Comp. Ex. 23:20, 21; 32:34; 33:2; Num.
20:16) is probably rightly interpreted of the Messiah
as the guide of his people. Others have supposed the
expression to refer to Gabriel (Luke 1:19).
Against Christ, or an opposition Christ,
a rival Christ. The word is used only by the apostle
John. Referring to false teachers, he says (1 John
2:18, 22; 4:3; 2 John 1:7), "Even now are there
(1.) This name has been applied to the
"little horn" of the "king of fierce
countenance" (Dan. 7:24, 25; 8:23-25).
(2.) It has been applied also to the
"false Christs" spoken of by our Lord (Matt.
24:5, 23, 24).
(3.) To the "man of sin"
described by Paul (2 Thess. 2:3, 4, 8-10).
(4.) And to the "beast from the
sea" (Rev. 13:1; 17:1-18).
(1.) Herod Antipas, a son of Herod the
Great by his Samaritan wife Malthace. He was tetrarch
of Galilee and Peraea during the whole period of our
Lord's life on earth (Luke 23:7). He was a
frivolous and vain prince, and was chargeable with many
infamous crimes (Mark 8:15; Luke 3:19; 13:31, 32). He
beheaded John the Baptist (Matt. 14:1-12) at the
instigation of Herodias, the wife of his half-brother
Herod-Philip, whom he had married. Pilate sent Christ
to him when he was at Jerusalem at the Passover (Luke
23:7). He asked some idle questions of him, and after
causing him to be mocked, sent him back again to
Pilate. The wife of Chuza, his house-steward, was one
of our Lord's disciples (Luke 8:3).
(2.) A "faithful martyr" (Rev.
2:13), of whom nothing more is certainly known.
The Greek name of the Book of Revelation
Destroyer, the name given to the king of
the hosts represented by the locusts (Rev. 9:11). It is
the Greek translation of the Hebrew Abaddon
Occurs only in Rev. 16:16 (R.V.,
"Har-Magedon"), as symbolically designating
the place where the "battle of that great day of
God Almighty" (ver. 14) shall be fought. The word
properly means the "mount of Megiddo." It is
the scene of the final conflict between Christ and
Antichrist. The idea of such a scene was suggested by
the Old Testament great battle-field, the plain of
Is employed in the English Bible to
denote military equipment, both offensive and
defensive. (1.) The offensive weapons were different at
different periods of history. The "rod of
iron" (Ps. 2:9) is supposed to mean a mace or
crowbar, an instrument of great power when used by a
strong arm. The "maul" (Prov. 25:18; cognate
Hebrew word rendered "battle-axe" in Jer.
51:20, and "slaughter weapon" in Ezek. 9:2)
was a war-hammer or martel. The "sword" is
the usual translation of hereb, which properly means
"poniard." The real sword, as well as the
dirk-sword (which was always double-edged), was also
used (1 Sam. 17:39; 2 Sam. 20:8; 1 Kings 20:11). The
spear was another offensive weapon (Josh. 8:18; 1 Sam.
17:7). The javelin was used by light troops (Num. 25:7,
8; 1 Sam. 13:22). Saul threw a javelin at David (1 Sam.
19:9, 10), and so virtually absolved him from his
allegiance. The bow was, however, the chief weapon of
offence. The arrows were carried in a quiver, the bow
being always unbent till the moment of action (Gen.
27:3; 48:22; Ps. 18:34). The sling was a favourite
weapon of the Benjamites (1 Sam. 17:40; 1 Chr. 12:2.
Comp. 1 Sam. 25:29).
(2.) Of the defensive armour a chief
place is assigned to the shield or buckler. There were
the great shield or target (the tzinnah), for the
protection of the whole person (Gen. 15:1; Ps. 47:9; 1
Sam. 17:7; Prov. 30:5), and the buckler (Heb. mageen)
or small shield (1 Kings 10:17; Ezek. 26:8). In Ps.
91:4 "buckler" is properly a roundel
appropriated to archers or slingers. The helmet (Ezek.
27:10; 1 Sam. 17:38), a covering for the head; the coat
of mail or corselet (1 Sam. 17:5), or habergeon (Neh.
4;16), harness or breat-plate (Rev. 9:9), for the
covering of the back and breast and both upper arms
(Isa. 59:17; Eph. 6:14). The cuirass and corselet,
composed of leather or quilted cloth, were also for the
covering of the body. Greaves, for the covering of the
legs, were worn in the time of David (1 Sam. 17:6).
Reference is made by Paul (Eph. 6:14-17) to the panoply
of a Roman soldier. The shield here is the thureon, a
door-like oblong shield above all, i.e., covering the
whole person, not the small round shield. There is no
armour for the back, but only for the front.
Is used to denote Proconsular Asia, a
Roman province which embraced the western parts of Asia
Minor, and of which Ephesus was the capital, in Acts
2:9; 6:9; 16:6; 19:10,22; 20:4, 16, 18, etc., and
probably Asia Minor in Acts 19:26, 27; 21:27; 24:18;
27:2. Proconsular Asia contained the seven churches of
the Apocalypse (Rev. 1:11). The "chiefs of
Asia" (Acts 19:31) were certain wealthy citizens
who were annually elected to preside over the games and
religious festivals of the several cities to which they
belonged. Some of these "Asiarchs" were
The Hebrews were devout students of the
wonders of the starry firmanent (Amos 5:8; Ps. 19). In
the Book of Job, which is the oldest book of the Bible
in all probability, the constellations are
distinguished and named. Mention is made of the
"morning star" (Rev. 2:28; comp. Isa. 14:12),
the "seven stars" and "Pleiades,"
"Orion," "Arcturus," the
"Great Bear" (Amos 5:8; Job 9:9; 38:31),
"the crooked serpent," Draco (Job 26:13), the
Dioscuri, or Gemini, "Castor and Pollux"
(Acts 28:11). The stars were called "the host of
heaven" (Isa. 40:26; Jer. 33:22).
The oldest divisions of time were mainly
based on the observation of the movements of the
heavenly bodies, the "ordinances of heaven"
(Gen. 1:14-18; Job 38:33; Jer. 31:35; 33:25). Such
observations led to the division of the year into
months and the mapping out of the appearances of the
stars into twelve portions, which received from the
Greeks the name of the "zodiac." The word
"Mazzaroth" (Job 38:32) means, as the margin
notes, "the twelve signs" of the zodiac.
Astronomical observations were also necessary among the
Jews in order to the fixing of the proper time for
sacred ceremonies, the "new moons," the
"passover," etc. Many allusions are found to
the display of God's wisdom and power as seen in
the starry heavens (Ps. 8; 19:1-6; Isa. 51:6,
The Greek form of BABEL; Semitic form
Babilu, meaning "The Gate of God." In the
Assyrian tablets it means "The city of the
dispersion of the tribes." The monumental list of
its kings reaches back to B.C. 2300, and includes
Khammurabi, or Amraphel (q.v.), the contemporary of
Abraham. It stood on the Euphrates, about 200 miles
above its junction with the Tigris, which flowed
through its midst and divided it into two almost equal
parts. The Elamites invaded Chaldea (i.e., Lower
Mesopotamia, or Shinar, and Upper Mesopotamia, or
Accad, now combined into one) and held it in
subjection. At length Khammu-rabi delivered it from the
foreign yoke, and founded the new empire of Chaldea
(q.v.), making Babylon the capital of the united
kingdom. This city gradually grew in extent and
grandeur, but in process of time it became subject to
Assyria. On the fall of Nineveh (B.C. 606) it threw off
the Assyrian yoke, and became the capital of the
growing Babylonian empire. Under Nebuchadnezzar it
became one of the most splendid cities of the ancient
After passing through various
vicissitudes the city was occupied by Cyrus, "king
of Elam," B.C. 538, who issued a decree permitting
the Jews to return to their own land (Ezra 1). It then
ceased to be the capital of an empire. It was again and
again visited by hostile armies, till its inhabitants
were all driven from their homes, and the city became a
complete desolation, its very site being forgotten from
On the west bank of the Euphrates, about
50 miles south of Bagdad, there is found a series of
artificial mounds of vast extent. These are the ruins
of this once famous proud city. These ruins are
principally (1) the great mound called Babil by the
Arabs. This was probably the noted Temple of Belus,
which was a pyramid about 480 feet high. (2) The Kasr
(i.e., "the palace"). This was the great
palace of Nebuchadnezzar. It is almost a square, each
side of which is about 700 feet long. The little town
of Hillah, near the site of Babylon, is built almost
wholly of bricks taken from this single mound. (3) A
lofty mound, on the summit of which stands a modern
tomb called Amran ibn-Ali. This is probably the most
ancient portion of the remains of the city, and
represents the ruins of the famous hanging-gardens, or
perhaps of some royal palace. The utter desolation of
the city once called "The glory of kingdoms"
(Isa.13:19) was foretold by the prophets (Isa.13:4-22;
Jer. 25:12; 50:2, 3; Dan. 2:31-38).
The Babylon mentioned in 1 Pet. 5:13 was
not Rome, as some have thought, but the literal city of
Babylon, which was inhabited by many Jews at the time
In Rev. 14:8; 16:19; 17:5; and 18:2,
"Babylon" is supposed to mean Rome, not
considered as pagan, but as the prolongation of the
ancient power in the papal form. Rome, pagan and papal,
is regarded as one power. "The literal Babylon was
the beginner and supporter of tyranny and
idolatry...This city and its whole empire were taken by
the Persians under Cyrus; the Persians were subdued by
the Macedonians, and the Macedonians by the Romans; so
that Rome succeeded to the power of old Babylon. And it
was her method to adopt the worship of the false
deities she had conquered; so that by her own act she
became the heiress and successor of all the Babylonian
idolatry, and of all that was introduced into it by the
immediate successors of Babylon, and consequently of
all the idolatry of the earth." Rome, or
"mystical Babylon," is "that great city
which reigneth over the kings of the earth"
Lord of the people; foreigner or glutton,
as interpreted by others, the son of Beor, was a man of
some rank among the Midianites (Num. 31:8; comp. 16).
He resided at Pethor (Deut. 23:4), in Mesopotamia (Num.
23:7). It is evident that though dwelling among
idolaters he had some knowledge of the true God; and
was held in such reputation that it was supposed that
he whom he blessed was blessed, and he whom he cursed
was cursed. When the Israelites were encamped on the
plains of Moab, on the east of Jordan, by Jericho,
Balak sent for Balaam "from Aram, out of the
mountains of the east," to curse them; but by the
remarkable interposition of God he was utterly unable
to fulfil Balak's wish, however desirous he was to
do so. The apostle Peter refers (2 Pet. 2:15, 16) to
this as an historical event. In Micah 6:5 reference
also is made to the relations between Balaam and Balak.
Though Balaam could not curse Israel, yet he suggested
a mode by which the divine displeasure might be caused
to descend upon them (Num. 25). In a battle between
Israel and the Midianites (q.v.) Balaam was slain while
fighting on the side of Balak (Num. 31:8).
The "doctrine of Balaam" is
spoken of in Rev. 2:14, in allusion to the fact that it
was through the teaching of Balaam that Balak learned
the way by which the Israelites might be led into sin.
(See NICOLAITANES.) Balaam was constrained to utter
prophecies regarding the future of Israel of wonderful
magnificence and beauty of expression (Num. 24:5-9,
Occurs in Lev. 19:36 and Isa. 46:6, as
the rendering of the Hebrew kanch', which properly
means "a reed" or "a cane," then a
rod or beam of a balance. This same word is translated
"measuring reed" in Ezek. 40:3,5; 42:16-18.
There is another Hebrew word, mozena'yim, i.e.,
"two poisers", also so rendered (Dan. 5:27).
The balances as represented on the most ancient
Egyptian monuments resemble those now in use. A
"pair of balances" is a symbol of justice and
fair dealing (Job 31:6; Ps. 62:9; Prov. 11:1). The
expression denotes great want and scarcity in Rev.
This word is used of flocks or herds of
grazing animals (Ex. 22:5; Num. 20:4, 8, 11; Ps.
78:48); of beasts of burden (Gen. 45:17); of eatable
beasts (Prov. 9:2); and of swift beasts or dromedaries
(Isa. 60:6). In the New Testament it is used of a
domestic animal as property (Rev. 18:13); as used for
food (1 Cor. 15:39), for service (Luke 10:34; Acts
23:24), and for sacrifice (Acts 7:42).
When used in contradistinction to man
(Ps. 36:6), it denotes a brute creature generally, and
when in contradistinction to creeping things (Lev.
11:2-7; 27:26), a four-footed animal.
The Mosaic law required that beasts of
labour should have rest on the Sabbath (Ex. 20:10;
23:12), and in the Sabbatical year all cattle were
allowed to roam about freely, and eat whatever grew in
the fields (Ex. 23:11; Lev. 25:7). No animal could be
castrated (Lev. 22:24). Animals of different kinds were
to be always kept separate (Lev. 19:19; Deut. 22:10).
Oxen when used in threshing were not to be prevented
from eating what was within their reach (Deut. 25:4; 1
This word is used figuratively of an
infuriated multitude (1 Cor. 15:32; Acts 19:29; comp.
Ps. 22:12, 16; Eccl. 3:18; Isa. 11:6-8), and of wicked
men (2 Pet. 2:12). The four beasts of Daniel 7:3, 17,
23 represent four kingdoms or kings.
The rendering in the Authorized Version
of the Hebrew word tarshish, a precious stone; probably
so called as being brought from Tarshish. It was one of
the stones on the breastplate of the high priest (Ex.
28:20; R.V. marg., "chalcedony;" 39:13). The
colour of the wheels in Ezekiel's vision was as the
colour of a beryl stone (1:16; 10:9; R.V., "stone
of Tarshish"). It is mentioned in Cant. 5:14; Dan.
10:6; Rev. 21:20. In Ezek. 28:13 the LXX. render the
word by "chrysolite," which the Jewish
historian Josephus regards as its proper translation.
This also is the rendering given in the Authorized
Version in the margin. That was a gold-coloured gem,
the topaz of ancient authors.
In the sense of speaking evil of God this
word is found in Ps. 74:18; Isa. 52:5; Rom. 2:24; Rev.
13:1, 6; 16:9, 11, 21. It denotes also any kind of
calumny, or evil-speaking, or abuse (1 Kings 21:10;
Acts 13:45; 18:6, etc.). Our Lord was accused of
blasphemy when he claimed to be the Son of God (Matt.
26:65; comp. Matt. 9:3; Mark 2:7). They who deny his
Messiahship blaspheme Jesus (Luke 22:65; John
Blasphemy against the Holy Ghost (Matt.
12:31, 32; Mark 3:28, 29; Luke 12:10) is regarded by
some as a continued and obstinate rejection of the
gospel, and hence is an unpardonable sin, simply
because as long as a sinner remains in unbelief he
voluntarily excludes himself from pardon. Others regard
the expression as designating the sin of attributing to
the power of Satan those miracles which Christ
performed, or generally those works which are the
result of the Spirit's agency.
This word has a comprehensive meaning in
Scripture. In the Old Testament it is the rendering of
the Hebrew word sepher, which properly means a
"writing," and then a "volume" (Ex.
17:14; Deut. 28:58; 29:20; Job 19:23) or "roll of
a book" (Jer. 36:2, 4).
Books were originally written on skins,
on linen or cotton cloth, and on Egyptian papyrus,
whence our word "paper." The leaves of the
book were generally written in columns, designated by a
Hebrew word properly meaning "doors" and
"valves" (Jer. 36:23, R.V., marg.
Among the Hebrews books were generally
rolled up like our maps, or if very long they were
rolled from both ends, forming two rolls (Luke
4:17-20). Thus they were arranged when the writing was
on flexible materials; but if the writing was on
tablets of wood or brass or lead, then the several
tablets were bound together by rings through which a
rod was passed.
A sealed book is one whose contents are
secret (Isa. 29:11; Rev. 5:1-3). To "eat" a
book (Jer. 15:16; Ezek. 2:8-10; 3:1-3; Rev. 10:9) is to
study its contents carefully.
The book of judgment (Dan. 7:10) refers
to the method of human courts of justice as
illustrating the proceedings which will take place at
the day of God's final judgment.
The book of the wars of the Lord (Num.
21:14), the book of Jasher (Josh. 10:13), and the book
of the chronicles of the kings of Judah and Israel (2
Chr. 25:26), were probably ancient documents known to
the Hebrews, but not forming a part of the canon.
The book of life (Ps. 69:28) suggests the
idea that as the redeemed form a community or
citizenship (Phil. 3:20; 4:3), a catalogue of the
citizens' names is preserved (Luke 10:20; Rev.
20:15). Their names are registered in heaven (Luke
10:20; Rev. 3:5).
The book of the covenant (Ex. 24:7),
containing Ex. 20:22-23:33, is the first book actually
mentioned as a part of the written word. It contains a
series of laws, civil, social, and religious, given to
Moses at Sinai immediately after the delivery of the
decalogue. These were written in this
Frequently used in the ordinary sense
(Isa. 49:18; 61:10, etc.). The relation between Christ
and his church is set forth under the figure of that
between a bridegroom and bride (John 3:29). The church
is called "the bride" (Rev. 21:9; 22:17).
Compare parable of the Ten Virgins (Matt.
An inflammable mineral substance found in
quantities on the shores of the Dead Sea. The cities of
the plain were destroyed by a rain of fire and
brimstone (Gen. 19:24, 25). In Isa. 34:9 allusion is
made to the destruction of these cities. This word
figuratively denotes destruction or punishment (Job
18:15; Isa. 30:33; 34:9; Ps. 11:6; Ezek. 38:22). It is
used to express the idea of excruciating torment in
Rev. 14:10; 19:20; 20:10.
(Heb. kelub', Jer. 5:27, marg.
"coop;" rendered "basket" in Amos
8:1), a basket of wicker-work in which birds were
placed after being caught. In Rev. 18:2 it is the
rendering of the Greek phulake, properly a prison or
place of confinement.
The vessel in which incense was presented
on "the golden altar" before the Lord in the
temple (Ex. 30:1-9). The priest filled the censer with
live coal from the sacred fire on the altar of
burnt-offering, and having carried it into the
sanctuary, there threw upon the burning coals the sweet
incense (Lev. 16:12, 13), which sent up a cloud of
smoke, filling the apartment with fragrance. The
censers in daily use were of brass (Num. 16:39), and
were designated by a different Hebrew name, miktereth
(2 Chr. 26:19; Ezek. 8:11): while those used on the day
of Atonement were of gold, and were denoted by a word
(mahtah) meaning "something to take fire
with;" LXX. pureion = a fire-pan. Solomon prepared
for the temple censers of pure gold (1 Kings 7:50; 2
Chr. 4:22). The angel in the Apocalypse is represented
with a golden censer (Rev. 8:3, 5). Paul speaks of the
golden censer as belonging to the tabernacle (Heb.
9:4). The Greek word thumiaterion, here rendered
"censer," may more appropriately denote, as
in the margin of Revised Version, "the altar of
incense." Paul does not here say that the
thumiaterion was in the holiest, for it was in the holy
place, but that the holiest had it, i.e., that it
belonged to the holiest (1 Kings 6:22). It was
intimately connected with the high priest's service
in the holiest.
The manner in which the censer is to be
used is described in Num. 4:14; Lev. 16:12.
Mentioned only in Rev. 21:19, as one of
the precious stones in the foundation of the New
Jerusalem. The name of this stone is derived from
Chalcedon, where it is said to have been first
discovered. In modern mineralogy this is the name of an
agate-like quartz of a bluish colour. Pliny so names
the Indian ruby. The mineral intended in Revelation is
probably the Hebrew nophekh, translated
"emerald" (Ex. 28:18; 39:11; Ezek. 27:16;
28:13). It is rendered "anthrax" in the LXX.,
and "carbunculus" in the Vulgate. (See
Plural cherubim, the name of certain
symbolical figures frequently mentioned in Scripture.
They are first mentioned in connection with the
expulsion of our first parents from Eden (Gen. 3:24).
There is no intimation given of their shape or form.
They are next mentioned when Moses was commanded to
provide furniture for the tabernacle (Ex. 25:17-20;
26:1, 31). God promised to commune with Moses
"from between the cherubim" (25:22). This
expression was afterwards used to denote the Divine
abode and presence (Num. 7:89; 1 Sam. 4:4; Isa. 37:16;
Ps. 80:1; 99:1). In Ezekiel's vision (10:1-20) they
appear as living creatures supporting the throne of
God. From Ezekiel's description of them (1;10;
41:18, 19), they appear to have been compound figures,
unlike any real object in nature; artificial images
possessing the features and properties of several
animals. Two cherubim were placed on the mercy-seat of
the ark; two of colossal size overshadowed it in
Solomon's temple. Ezekiel (1:4-14) speaks of four;
and this number of "living creatures" is
mentioned in Rev. 4:6. Those on the ark are called the
"cherubim of glory" (Heb. 9:5), i.e., of the
Shechinah, or cloud of glory, for on them the visible
glory of God rested. They were placed one at each end
of the mercy-seat, with wings stretched upward, and
their faces "toward each other and toward the
mercy-seat." They were anointed with holy oil,
like the ark itself and the other sacred furniture.
The cherubim were symbolical. They were
intended to represent spiritual existences in immediate
contact with Jehovah. Some have regarded them as
symbolical of the chief ruling power by which God
carries on his operations in providence (Ps. 18:10).
Others interpret them as having reference to the
redemption of men, and as symbolizing the great rulers
or ministers of the church. Many other opinions have
been held regarding them which need not be referred to
here. On the whole, it seems to be most satisfactory to
regard the interpretation of the symbol to be variable,
as is the symbol itself.
Their office was, (1) on the expulsion of
our first parents from Eden, to prevent all access to
the tree of life; and (2) to form the throne and
chariot of Jehovah in his manifestation of himself on
earth. He dwelleth between and sitteth on the cherubim
(1 Sam. 4:4; Ps. 80:1; Ezek. 1:26, 28).
Golden leek, a precious stone of the
colour of leek's juice, a greenish-golden colour
Derived probably from the Greek kuriakon
(i.e., "the Lord's house"), which was
used by ancient authors for the place of worship.
In the New Testament it is the
translation of the Greek word ecclesia, which is
synonymous with the Hebrew kahal of the Old Testament,
both words meaning simply an assembly, the character of
which can only be known from the connection in which
the word is found. There is no clear instance of its
being used for a place of meeting or of worship,
although in post-apostolic times it early received this
meaning. Nor is this word ever used to denote the
inhabitants of a country united in the same profession,
as when we say the "Church of England," the
"Church of Scotland," etc.
We find the word ecclesia used in the
following senses in the New Testament: (1.) It is
translated "assembly" in the ordinary
classical sense (Acts 19:32, 39, 41).
(2.) It denotes the whole body of the
redeemed, all those whom the Father has given to
Christ, the invisible catholic church (Eph. 5:23, 25,
27, 29; Heb. 12:23).
(3.) A few Christians associated together
in observing the ordinances of the gospel are an
ecclesia (Rom. 16:5; Col. 4:15).
(4.) All the Christians in a particular
city, whether they assembled together in one place or
in several places for religious worship, were an
ecclesia. Thus all the disciples in Antioch, forming
several congregations, were one church (Acts 13:1); so
also we read of the "church of God at
Corinth" (1 Cor. 1:2), "the church at
Jerusalem" (Acts 8:1), "the church of
Ephesus" (Rev. 2:1), etc.
(5.) The whole body of professing
Christians throughout the world (1 Cor. 15:9; Gal.
1:13; Matt. 16:18) are the church of Christ.
The church visible "consists of all
those throughout the world that profess the true
religion, together with their children." It is
called "visible" because its members are
known and its assemblies are public. Here there is a
mixture of "wheat and chaff," of saints and
sinners. "God has commanded his people to organize
themselves into distinct visible ecclesiastical
communities, with constitutions, laws, and officers,
badges, ordinances, and discipline, for the great
purpose of giving visibility to his kingdom, of making
known the gospel of that kingdom, and of gathering in
all its elect subjects. Each one of these distinct
organized communities which is faithful to the great
King is an integral part of the visible church, and all
together constitute the catholic or universal visible
church." A credible profession of the true
religion constitutes a person a member of this church.
This is "the kingdom of heaven," whose
character and progress are set forth in the parables
recorded in Matt. 13.
The children of all who thus profess the
true religion are members of the visible church along
with their parents. Children are included in every
covenant God ever made with man. They go along with
their parents (Gen. 9:9-17; 12:1-3; 17:7; Ex. 20:5;
Deut. 29:10-13). Peter, on the day of Pentecost, at the
beginning of the New Testament dispensation, announces
the same great principle. "The promise [just as to
Abraham and his seed the promises were made] is unto
you, and to your children" (Acts 2:38, 39). The
children of believing parents are "holy",
i.e., are "saints", a title which designates
the members of the Christian church (1 Cor. 7:14). (See
The church invisible "consists of
the whole number of the elect that have been, are, or
shall be gathered into one under Christ, the head
thereof." This is a pure society, the church in
which Christ dwells. It is the body of Christ. it is
called "invisible" because the greater part
of those who constitute it are already in heaven or are
yet unborn, and also because its members still on earth
cannot certainly be distinguished. The qualifications
of membership in it are internal and are hidden. It is
unseen except by Him who "searches the
heart." "The Lord knoweth them that are
his" (2 Tim. 2:19).
The church to which the attributes,
prerogatives, and promises appertaining to Christ's
kingdom belong, is a spiritual body consisting of all
true believers, i.e., the church invisible.
(1.) Its unity. God has ever had only one
church on earth. We sometimes speak of the Old
Testament Church and of the New Testament church, but
they are one and the same. The Old Testament church was
not to be changed but enlarged (Isa. 49:13-23;
60:1-14). When the Jews are at length restored, they
will not enter a new church, but will be grafted again
into "their own olive tree" (Rom. 11:18-24;
comp. Eph. 2:11-22). The apostles did not set up a new
organization. Under their ministry disciples were
"added" to the "church" already
existing (Acts 2:47).
(2.) Its universality. It is the
"catholic" church; not confined to any
particular country or outward organization, but
comprehending all believers throughout the whole
(3.) Its perpetuity. It will continue
through all ages to the end of the world. It can never
be destroyed. It is an "everlasting
Heb. kinamon, the Cinnamomum zeylanicum
of botanists, a tree of the Laurel family, which grows
only in India on the Malabar coast, in Ceylon, and
China. There is no trace of it in Egypt, and it was
unknown in Syria. The inner rind when dried and rolled
into cylinders forms the cinnamon of commerce. The
fruit and coarser pieces of bark when boiled yield a
fragrant oil. It was one of the principal ingredients
in the holy anointing oil (Ex. 30:23). It is mentioned
elsewhere only in Prov. 7:17; Cant. 4:14; Rev. 18:13.
The mention of it indicates a very early and extensive
commerce carried on between Palestine and the
The subject of colours holds an important
place in the Scriptures.
White occurs as the translation of
various Hebrew words. It is applied to milk (Gen.
49:12), manna (Ex. 16:31), snow (Isa. 1:18), horses
(Zech. 1:8), raiment (Eccl. 9:8). Another Hebrew word
so rendered is applied to marble (Esther 1:6), and a
cognate word to the lily (Cant. 2:16). A different
term, meaning "dazzling," is applied to the
countenance (Cant. 5:10).
This colour was an emblem of purity and
innocence (Mark 16:5; John 20:12; Rev. 19:8, 14), of
joy (Eccl. 9:8), and also of victory (Zech. 6:3; Rev.
6:2). The hangings of the tabernacle court (Ex. 27:9;
38:9), the coats, mitres, bonnets, and breeches of the
priests (Ex. 39:27,28), and the dress of the high
priest on the day of Atonement (Lev. 16:4,32), were
Black, applied to the hair (Lev. 13:31;
Cant. 5:11), the complexion (Cant. 1:5), and to horses
(Zech. 6:2,6). The word rendered "brown" in
Gen. 30:32 (R.V., "black") means properly
"scorched", i.e., the colour produced by the
influence of the sun's rays. "Black" in
Job 30:30 means dirty, blackened by sorrow and disease.
The word is applied to a mourner's robes (Jer.
8:21; 14:2), to a clouded sky (1 Kings 18:45), to night
(Micah 3:6; Jer. 4:28), and to a brook rendered turbid
by melted snow (Job 6:16). It is used as symbolical of
evil in Zech. 6:2, 6 and Rev. 6:5. It was the emblem of
mourning, affliction, calamity (Jer. 14:2; Lam. 4:8;
Red, applied to blood (2 Kings 3;22), a
heifer (Num. 19:2), pottage of lentils (Gen. 25:30), a
horse (Zech. 1:8), wine (Prov. 23:31), the complexion
(Gen. 25:25; Cant. 5:10). This colour is symbolical of
bloodshed (Zech. 6:2; Rev. 6:4; 12:3).
Purple, a colour obtained from the
secretion of a species of shell-fish (the Murex
trunculus) which was found in the Mediterranean, and
particularly on the coasts of Phoenicia and Asia Minor.
The colouring matter in each separate shell-fish
amounted to only a single drop, and hence the great
value of this dye. Robes of this colour were worn by
kings (Judg. 8:26) and high officers (Esther 8:15).
They were also worn by the wealthy and luxurious (Jer.
10:9; Ezek. 27:7; Luke 16:19; Rev. 17:4). With this
colour was associated the idea of royalty and majesty
(Judg. 8:26; Cant. 3:10; 7:5; Dan. 5:7, 16,29).
Blue. This colour was also procured from
a species of shell-fish, the chelzon of the Hebrews,
and the Helix ianthina of modern naturalists. The tint
was emblematic of the sky, the deep dark hue of the
Eastern sky. This colour was used in the same way as
purple. The ribbon and fringe of the Hebrew dress were
of this colour (Num. 15:38). The loops of the curtains
(Ex. 26:4), the lace of the high priest's
breastplate, the robe of the ephod, and the lace on his
mitre, were blue (Ex. 28:28, 31, 37).
Scarlet, or Crimson. In Isa. 1:18 a
Hebrew word is used which denotes the worm or grub
whence this dye was procured. In Gen. 38:28,30, the
word so rendered means "to shine," and
expresses the brilliancy of the colour. The small
parasitic insects from which this dye was obtained
somewhat resembled the cochineal which is found in
Eastern countries. It is called by naturalists Coccus
ilics. The dye was procured from the female grub alone.
The only natural object to which this colour is applied
in Scripture is the lips, which are likened to a
scarlet thread (Cant. 4:3). Scarlet robes were worn by
the rich and luxurious (2 Sam. 1:24; Prov. 31:21; Jer.
4:30. Rev. 17:4). It was also the hue of the
warrior's dress (Nah. 2:3; Isa. 9:5). The
Phoenicians excelled in the art of dyeing this colour
(2 Chr. 2:7).
These four colours-white, purple, blue,
and scarlet-were used in the textures of the tabernacle
curtains (Ex. 26:1, 31, 36), and also in the high
priest's ephod, girdle, and breastplate (Ex. 28:5,
6, 8, 15). Scarlet thread is mentioned in connection
with the rites of cleansing the leper (Lev. 14:4, 6,
51) and of burning the red heifer (Num. 19:6). It was a
crimson thread that Rahab was to bind on her window as
a sign that she was to be saved alive (Josh. 2:18;
6:25) when the city of Jericho was taken.
Vermilion, the red sulphuret of mercury,
or cinnabar; a colour used for drawing the figures of
idols on the walls of temples (Ezek. 23:14), or for
decorating the walls and beams of houses (Jer.
"In the beginning" God created,
i.e., called into being, all things out of nothing.
This creative act on the part of God was absolutely
free, and for infinitely wise reasons. The cause of all
things exists only in the will of God. The work of
creation is attributed (1) to the Godhead (Gen. 1:1,
26); (2) to the Father (1 Cor. 8:6); (3) to the Son
(John 1:3; Col. 1:16, 17); (4) to the Holy Spirit (Gen.
1:2; Job 26:13; Ps. 104:30). The fact that he is the
Creator distinguishes Jehovah as the true God (Isa.
37:16; 40:12, 13; 54:5; Ps. 96:5; Jer. 10:11, 12). The
one great end in the work of creation is the
manifestation of the glory of the Creator (Col. 1:16;
Rev. 4:11; Rom. 11:36). God's works, equally with
God's word, are a revelation from him; and between
the teachings of the one and those of the other, when
rightly understood, there can be no contradiction.
Traditions of the creation, disfigured by
corruptions, are found among the records of ancient
Eastern nations. (See ACCAD.) A peculiar interest
belongs to the traditions of the Accadians, the
primitive inhabitants of the plains of Lower
Mesopotamia. These within the last few years have been
brought to light in the tablets and cylinders which
have been rescued from the long-buried palaces and
temples of Assyria. They bear a remarkable resemblance
to the record of Genesis.
Denotes the whole creation in Rom. 8:39;
Col. 1:15; Rev. 5:13; the whole human race in Mark
16:15; Rom. 8:19-22.
The living creatures in Ezek. 10:15, 17,
are imaginary beings, symbols of the Divine attributes
(1.) Denotes the plate of gold in the
front of the high priest's mitre (Ex. 29:6; 39:30).
The same Hebrew word so rendered (ne'zer) denotes
the diadem worn by Saul in battle (2 Sam. 1:10), and
also that which was used at the coronation of Joash (2
(2.) The more general name in Hebrew for
a crown is 'atarah, meaning a "circlet."
This is used of crowns and head ornaments of divers
kinds, including royal crowns. Such was the crown taken
from the king of Ammon by David (2 Sam. 12:30). The
crown worn by the Assyrian kings was a high mitre,
sometimes adorned with flowers. There are sculptures
also representing the crowns worn by the early Egyptian
and Persian kings. Sometimes a diadem surrounded the
royal head-dress of two or three fillets. This probably
signified that the wearer had dominion over two or
three countries. In Rev. 12:3; 13:1, we read of
"many crowns," a token of extended
(3.) The ancient Persian crown (Esther
1:11; 2:17; 6:8) was called kether; i.e., "a
chaplet," a high cap or tiara. Crowns were worn
sometimes to represent honour and power (Ezek. 23:42).
They were worn at marriages (Cant. 3:11; Isa. 61:10,
"ornaments;" R.V., "a garland"),
and at feasts and public festivals.
The crown was among the Romans and Greeks
a symbol of victory and reward. The crown or wreath
worn by the victors in the Olympic games was made of
leaves of the wild olive; in the Pythian games, of
laurel; in the Nemean games, of parsley; and in the
Isthmian games, of the pine. The Romans bestowed the
"civic crown" on him who saved the life of a
citizen. It was made of the leaves of the oak. In
opposition to all these fading crowns the apostles
speak of the incorruptible crown, the crown of life
(James 1:12; Rev. 2:10) "that fadeth not
away" (1 Pet. 5:4, Gr. amarantinos; comp. 1:4).
Probably the word "amaranth" was applied to
flowers we call "everlasting," the
(Ezek. 1:22, with the epithet
"terrible," as dazzling the spectators with
its brightness). The word occurs in Rev. 4:6; 21:11;
22:1. It is a stone of the flint order, the most
refined kind of quartz. The Greek word here used means
also literally "ice." The ancients regarded
the crystal as only pure water congealed into extreme
hardness by great length of time.
A wine-cup (Gen. 40:11, 21), various
forms of which are found on Assyrian and Egyptian
monuments. All Solomon's drinking vessels were of
gold (1 Kings 10: 21). The cups mentioned in the New
Testament were made after Roman and Greek models, and
were sometimes of gold (Rev. 17:4).
The art of divining by means of a cup was
practiced in Egypt (Gen. 44:2-17), and in the East
The "cup of salvation" (Ps.
116:13) is the cup of thanksgiving for the great
salvation. The "cup of consolation" (Jer.
16:7) refers to the custom of friends sending viands
and wine to console relatives in mourning (Prov. 31:6).
In 1 Cor. 10:16, the "cup of blessing" is
contrasted with the "cup of devils" (1 Cor.
10:21). The sacramental cup is the "cup of
blessing," because of blessing pronounced over it
(Matt. 26:27; Luke 22:17). The "portion of the
cup" (Ps. 11:6; 16:5) denotes one's condition
of life, prosperous or adverse. A "cup" is
also a type of sensual allurement (Jer. 51:7; Prov.
23:31; Rev. 17:4). We read also of the "cup of
astonishment," the "cup of trembling,"
and the "cup of God's wrath" (Ps. 75:8;
Isa. 51:17; Jer. 25:15; Lam. 4:21; Ezek. 23:32; Rev.
16:19; comp. Matt. 26:39, 42; John 18:11). The cup is
also the symbol of death (Matt. 16:28; Mark 9:1; Heb.
The flesh in various ways was an
idolatrous practice, a part of idol-worship (Deut.
14:1; 1 Kings 18:28). The Israelites were commanded not
to imitate this practice (Lev. 19:28; 21:5; Deut.
14:1). The tearing of the flesh from grief and anguish
of spirit in mourning for the dead was regarded as a
mark of affection (Jer. 16:6; 41:5; 48:37).
Allusions are made in Revelation (13:16;
17:5; 19:20) to the practice of printing marks on the
body, to indicate allegiance to a deity. We find also
references to it, through in a different direction, by
Paul (Gal. 6; 7) and by Ezekiel (9:4). (See
The Greek form, rendered
"devil" in the Authorized Version of the New
Testament. Daemons are spoken of as spiritual beings
(Matt. 8:16; 10:1; 12:43-45) at enmity with God, and as
having a certain power over man (James 2:19; Rev.
16:14). They recognize our Lord as the Son of God
(Matt. 8:20; Luke 4:41). They belong to the number of
those angels that "kept not their first
estate," "unclean spirits," "fallen
angels," the angels of the devil (Matt. 25:41;
Rev. 12:7-9). They are the "principalities and
powers" against which we must "wrestle"
(Job 38:12; Luke 1:78), the dawn of the
morning; daybreak. (Comp. Isa. 60:1, 2; Mal. 4:2; Rev.
Which precedes and accompanies the
sun-rising. It is found only in 2 Pet. 1:19, where it
denotes the manifestation of Christ to the soul,
imparting spiritual light and comfort. He is the
"bright and morning star" of Rev. 2:28;
22:16. (Comp. Num. 24:17.)
May be simply defined as the termination
of life. It is represented under a variety of aspects
in Scripture: (1.) "The dust shall return to the
earth as it was" (Eccl. 12:7).
(2.) "Thou takest away their breath,
they die" (Ps. 104:29).
(3.) It is the dissolution of "our
earthly house of this tabernacle" (2 Cor. 5:1);
the "putting off this tabernacle" (2 Pet.
(4.) Being "unclothed" (2 Cor.
(5.) "Falling on sleep" (Ps.
76:5; Jer. 51:39; Acts 13:36; 2 Pet. 3:9.
(6.) "I go whence I shall not
return" (Job 10:21); "Make me to know mine
end" (Ps. 39:4); "to depart" (Phil.
The grave is represented as "the
gates of death" (Job 38:17; Ps. 9:13; 107:18). The
gloomy silence of the grave is spoken of under the
figure of the "shadow of death" (Jer.
Death is the effect of sin (Heb. 2:14),
and not a "debt of nature." It is but once
(9:27), universal (Gen. 3:19), necessary (Luke
2:28-30). Jesus has by his own death taken away its
sting for all his followers (1 Cor. 15:55-57).
There is a spiritual death in trespasses
and sins, i.e., the death of the soul under the power
of sin (Rom. 8:6; Eph. 2:1, 3; Col. 2:13).
The "second death" (Rev. 2:11)
is the everlasting perdition of the wicked (Rev. 21:8),
and "second" in respect to natural or
THE DEATH OF CHRIST is the procuring
cause incidentally of all the blessings men enjoy on
earth. But specially it is the procuring cause of the
actual salvation of all his people, together with all
the means that lead thereto. It does not make their
salvation merely possible, but certain (Matt. 18:11;
Rom. 5:10; 2 Cor. 5:21; Gal. 1:4; 3:13; Eph. 1:7; 2:16;
Used to denote (1) the grave or the abyss
(Rom. 10:7; Luke 8:31); (2) the deepest part of the sea
(Ps. 69:15); (3) the chaos mentioned in Gen. 1:2; (4)
the bottomless pit, hell (Rev. 9:1, 2; 11:7;
(Gr. diabolos), a slanderer, the
arch-enemy of man's spiritual interest (Job 1:6;
Rev. 2:10; Zech. 3:1). He is called also "the
accuser of the brethen" (Rev. 12:10).
In Lev. 17:7 the word "devil"
is the translation of the Hebrew sair, meaning a
"goat" or "satyr" (Isa. 13:21;
34:14), alluding to the wood-daemons, the objects of
idolatrous worship among the heathen.
In Deut. 32:17 and Ps. 106:37 it is the
translation of Hebrew shed, meaning lord, and idol,
regarded by the Jews as a "demon," as the
word is rendered in the Revised Version.
In the narratives of the Gospels
regarding the "casting out of devils" a
different Greek word (daimon) is used. In the time of
our Lord there were frequent cases of demoniacal
possession (Matt. 12:25-30; Mark 5:1-20; Luke 4:35;
The tiara of a king (Ezek. 21:26; Isa.
28:5; 62:3); the turban (Job 29:14). In the New
Testament a careful distinction is drawn between the
diadem as a badge of royalty (Rev. 12:3; 13:1; 19:12)
and the crown as a mark of distinction in private life.
It is not known what the ancient Jewish
"diadem" was. It was the mark of Oriental
sovereigns. (See CROWN.)
Frequently mentioned both in the Old and
New Testaments. Dogs were used by the Hebrews as a
watch for their houses (Isa. 56:10), and for guarding
their flocks (Job 30:1). There were also then as now
troops of semi-wild dogs that wandered about devouring
dead bodies and the offal of the streets (1 Kings
14:11; 16:4; 21:19, 23; 22:38; Ps. 59:6, 14).
As the dog was an unclean animal, the
terms "dog," "dog's head,"
"dead dog," were used as terms of reproach or
of humiliation (1 Sam. 24:14; 2 Sam. 3:8; 9:8; 16:9).
Paul calls false apostles "dogs" (Phil. 3:2).
Those who are shut out of the kingdom of heaven are
also so designated (Rev. 22:15). Persecutors are called
"dogs" (Ps. 22:16). Hazael's words,
"Thy servant which is but a dog" (2 Kings
8:13), are spoken in mock humility=impossible that one
so contemptible as he should attain to such
Moved on pivots of wood fastened in
sockets above and below (Prov. 26:14). They were
fastened by a lock (Judg. 3:23, 25; Cant. 5:5) or by a
bar (Judg. 16:3; Job 38:10). In the interior of
Oriental houses, curtains were frequently used instead
The entrances of the tabernacle had
curtains (Ex. 26:31-33, 36). The "valley of
Achor" is called a "door of hope,"
because immediately after the execution of Achan the
Lord said to Joshua, "Fear not," and from
that time Joshua went forward in a career of
uninterrupted conquest. Paul speaks of a "door
opened" for the spread of the gospel (1 Cor. 16:9;
2 Cor. 2:12; Col. 4:3). Our Lord says of himself,
"I am the door" (John 10:9). John (Rev. 4:1)
speaks of a "door opened in heaven."
(1.) Heb. tannim, plural of tan. The name
of some unknown creature inhabiting desert places and
ruins (Job 30:29; Ps. 44:19; Isa. 13:22; 34:13; 43:20;
Jer. 10:22; Micah 1:8; Mal. 1:3); probably, as
translated in the Revised Version, the jackal
(2.) Heb. tannin. Some great sea monster
(Jer. 51:34). In Isa. 51:9 it may denote the crocodile.
In Gen. 1:21 (Heb. plural tanninim) the Authorized
Version renders "whales," and the Revised
Version "sea monsters." It is rendered
"serpent" in Ex. 7:9. It is used figuratively
in Ps. 74:13; Ezek. 29:3.
In the New Testament the word
"dragon" is found only in Rev. 12:3, 4, 7, 9,
16, 17, etc., and is there used metaphorically of
"Satan." (See WHALE.)
The ancient Hebrews would not eat with
the Egyptians (Gen. 43:32). In the time of our Lord
they would not eat with Samaritans (John 4:9), and were
astonished that he ate with publicans and sinners
(Matt. 9:11). The Hebrews originally sat at table, but
afterwards adopted the Persian and Chaldean practice of
reclining (Luke 7:36-50). Their principal meal was at
noon (Gen. 43:16; 1 Kings 20:16; Ruth 2:14; Luke
14:12). The word "eat" is used metaphorically
in Jer. 15:16; Ezek. 3:1; Rev. 10:9. In John 6:53-58,
"eating and drinking" means believing in
Christ. Women were never present as guests at meals
Not found in Scripture except indirectly
in the original Greek word (elephantinos) translated
"of ivory" in Rev. 18:12, and in the Hebrew
word (shenhabim, meaning "elephant's
tooth") rendered "ivory" in 1 Kings
10:22 and 2 Chr. 9:21.
Heb. nophek (Ex. 28:18; 39:11); i.e., the
"glowing stone", probably the carbuncle, a
precious stone in the breastplate of the high priest.
It is mentioned (Rev. 21:19) as one of the foundations
of the New Jerusalem. The name given to this stone in
the New Testament Greek is smaragdos, which means
The capital of proconsular Asia, which was the western part of Asia Minor. It was colonized principally from Athens. In the time of the Romans it bore the title of “the first and greatest metropolis of Asia.” It was distinguished for the Temple of Diana (q.v.), who there had her chief shrine; and for its theatre, which was the largest in the world, capable of containing 50,000 spectators. It was, like all ancient theatres, open to the sky. Here were exhibited the fights of wild beasts and of men with beasts. (Comp. 1 Cor. 4:9; 9:24, 25; 15:32.)
Many Jews took up their residence in this city, and here the seeds of the gospel were sown immediately after Pentecost (Acts 2:9; 6:9). At the close of his second missionary journey (about A.D. 51), when Paul was returning from Greece to Syria (18:18-21), he first visited this city. He remained, however, for only a short time, as he was hastening to keep the feast, probably of Pentecost, at Jerusalem; but he left Aquila and Priscilla behind him to carry on the work of spreading the gospel.
During his third missionary journey Paul reached Ephesus from the “upper coasts” (Acts 19:1), i.e., from the inland parts of Asia Minor, and tarried here for about three years; and so successful and abundant were his labours that “all they which dwelt in Asia heard the word of the Lord Jesus, both Jews and Greeks” (19:10). Probably during this period the seven churches of the Apocalypse were founded, not by Paul’s personal labours, but by missionaries whom he may have sent out from Ephesus, and by the influence of converts returning to their homes.
On his return from his journey, Paul touched at Miletus, some 30 miles south of Ephesus (Acts 20:15), and sending for the presbyters of Ephesus to meet him there, he delivered to them that touching farewell charge which is recorded in Acts 20:18-35. Ephesus is not again mentioned till near the close of Paul’s life, when he writes to Timothy exhorting him to “abide still at Ephesus” (1 Tim. 1:3).
Two of Paul’s companions, Trophimus and Tychicus, were probably natives of Ephesus (Acts 20:4; 21:29; 2 Tim. 4:12). In his second epistle to Timothy, Paul speaks of Onesiphorus as having served him in many things at Ephesus (2 Tim. 1:18). He also “sent Tychicus to Ephesus” (4:12), probably to attend to the interests of the church there. Ephesus is twice mentioned in the Apocalypse (1:11; 2:1).
The apostle John, according to tradition, spent many years in Ephesus, where he died and was buried.
A part of the site of this once famous city is now occupied by a small Turkish village, Ayasaluk, which is regarded as a corruption of the two Greek words, hagios theologos; i.e., “the holy divine.”
The miserable fate of the wicked in hell (Matt. 25:46; Mark 3:29; Heb. 6:2; 2 Thess. 1:9; Matt. 18:8; 25:41; Jude 1:7). The Scripture as clearly teaches the unending duration of the penal sufferings of the lost as the “everlasting life,” the “eternal life” of the righteous. The same Greek words in the New Testament (aion, aionios, aidios) are used to express (1) the eternal existence of God (1 Tim. 1:17; Rom. 1:20; 16:26); (2) of Christ (Rev. 1:18); (3) of the Holy Ghost (Heb. 9:14); and (4) the eternal duration of the sufferings of the lost (Matt. 25:46; Jude 1:6).
Their condition after casting off the mortal body is spoken of in these expressive words: “Fire that shall not be quenched” (Mark 9:45, 46), “fire unquenchable” (Luke 3:17), “the worm that never dies,” the “bottomless pit” (Rev. 9:1), “the smoke of their torment ascending up for ever and ever” (Rev. 14:10, 11).
The idea that the “second death” (Rev. 20:14) is in the case of the wicked their absolute destruction, their annihilation, has not the slightest support from Scripture, which always represents their future as one of conscious suffering enduring for ever.
The supposition that God will ultimately secure the repentance and restoration of all sinners is equally unscriptural. There is not the slightest trace in all the Scriptures of any such restoration. Sufferings of themselves have no tendency to purify the soul from sin or impart spiritual life. The atoning death of Christ and the sanctifying power of the Holy Spirit are the only means of divine appointment for bringing men to repentance. Now in the case of them that perish these means have been rejected, and “there remaineth no more sacrifice for sins” (Heb. 10:26, 27).
Ezekiel, Book of
Consists mainly of three groups of prophecies. After an account of his call to the prophetical office (1-3:21), Ezekiel (1) utters words of denunciation against the Jews (3:22-24), warning them of the certain destruction of Jerusalem, in opposition to the words of the false prophets (4:1-3). The symbolical acts, by which the extremities to which Jerusalem would be reduced are described in ch. 4,5, show his intimate acquaintance with the Levitical legislation. (See Ex. 22:30; Deut. 14:21; Lev. 5:2; 7:18,24; 17:15; 19:7; 22:8, etc.)
(2.) Prophecies against various surrounding nations: against the Ammonites (Ezek. 25:1- 7), the Moabites (8-11), the Edomites (12-14), the Philistines (15-17), Tyre and Sidon (26-28), and against Egypt (29-32).
(3.) Prophecies delivered after the destruction of Jerusalem by Nebuchadnezzar: the triumphs of Israel and of the kingdom of God on earth (Ezek. 33- 39); Messianic times, and the establishment and prosperity of the kingdom of God (40;48).
The closing visions of this book are referred to in the book of Revelation (Ezek. 38=Rev. 20:8; Ezek. 47:1-8=Rev. 22:1,2). Other references to this book are also found in the New Testament. (Comp. Rom. 2:24 with Ezek. 36:2; Rom. 10:5, Gal. 3:12 with Ezek. 20:11; 2 Pet. 3:4 with Ezek. 12:22.)
It may be noted that Daniel, fourteen years after his deportation from Jerusalem, is mentioned by Ezekiel (14:14) along with Noah and Job as distinguished for his righteousness, and some five years later he is spoken of as pre-eminent for his wisdom (28:3).
Ezekiel’s prophecies are characterized by symbolical and allegorical representations, “unfolding a rich series of majestic visions and of colossal symbols.” There are a great many also of “symbolcal actions embodying vivid conceptions on the part of the prophet” (4:1-4; 5:1-4; 12:3-6; 24:3-5; 37:16, etc.) “The mode of representation, in which symbols and allegories occupy a prominent place, gives a dark, mysterious character to the prophecies of Ezekiel. They are obscure and enigmatical. A cloudy mystery overhangs them which it is almost impossible to penetrate. Jerome calls the book ‘a labyrith of the mysteries of God.’ It was because of this obscurity that the Jews forbade any one to read it till he had attained the age of thirty.”
Ezekiel is singular in the frequency with which he refers to the Pentateuch (e.g., Ezek. 27; 28:13; 31:8; 36:11, 34; 47:13, etc.). He shows also an acquaintance with the writings of Hosea (Ezek. 37:22), Isaiah (Ezek. 8:12; 29:6), and especially with those of Jeremiah, his older contemporary (Jer. 24:7, 9; 48:37).
Means simply presence, as when it is recorded that Adam and Eve hid themselves from the “face [R.V., ‘presence’] of the Lord God” (Gen. 3:8; comp. Ex. 33:14, 15, where the same Hebrew word is rendered “presence”). The “light of God’s countenance” is his favour (Ps. 44:3; Dan. 9:17). “Face” signifies also anger, justice, severity (Gen. 16:6, 8; Ex. 2:15; Ps. 68:1; Rev. 6:16). To “provoke God to his face” (Isa. 65:3) is to sin against him openly.
The Jews prayed with their faces toward the temple and Jerusalem (1 Kings 8:38, 44, 48; Dan. 6:10). To “see God’s face” is to have access to him and to enjoy his favour (Ps. 17:15; 27:8). This is the privilege of holy angels (Matt. 18:10; Luke 1:19). The “face of Jesus Christ” (2 Cor. 4:6) is the office and person of Christ, the revealer of the glory of God (John 1:14, 18).
As a designation of Christians, means full of faith, trustful, and not simply trustworthy (Acts 10:45; 16:1; 2 Cor. 6:15; Col. 1:2; 1 Tim. 4:3, 12; 5:16; 6:2; Titus 1:6; Eph. 1:1; 1 Cor. 4:17, etc.).
It is used also of God’s word or covenant as true and to be trusted (Ps. 119:86, 138; Isa. 25:1; 1 Tim. 1:15; Rev. 21:5; 22:6, etc.).
(1.) With God, consisting in the knowledge of his will (Job 22:21; John 17:3); agreement with his designs (Amos 3:2); mutual affection (Rom. 8: 38, 39); enjoyment of his presence (Ps. 4:6); conformity to his image (1 John 2:6; 1:6); and participation of his felicity (1 John 1:3, 4; Eph. 3:14-21).
(2.) Of saints with one another, in duties (Rom. 12:5; 1 Cor. 12:1; 1 Thess. 5:17, 18); in ordinances (Heb. 10:25; Acts 2:46); in grace, love, joy, etc. (Mal. 3:16; 2 Cor. 8:4); mutual interest, spiritual and temporal (Rom. 12:4, 13; Heb. 13:16); in sufferings (Rom. 15:1, 2; Gal. 6:1, 2; Rom. 12:15; and in glory (Rev. 7:9).
First mentioned in Gen. 3:7. The fig-tree is mentioned (Deut. 8:8) as one of the valuable products of Palestine. It was a sign of peace and prosperity (1 Kings 4:25; Micah 4:4; Zech. 3:10). Figs were used medicinally (2 Kings 20:7), and pressed together and formed into “cakes” as articles of diet (1 Sam. 30:12; Jer. 24:2).
Our Lord’s cursing the fig-tree near Bethany (Mark 11:13) has occasioned much perplexity from the circumstance, as mentioned by the evangelist, that “the time of figs was not yet.” The explanation of the words, however, lies in the simple fact that the fruit of the fig-tree appears before the leaves, and hence that if the tree produced leaves it ought also to have had fruit. It ought to have had fruit if it had been true to its “pretensions,” in showing its leaves at this particular season. “This tree, so to speak, vaunted itself to be in advance of all the other trees, challenged the passer-by that he should come and refresh himself with its fruit. Yet when the Lord accepted its challenge and drew near, it proved to be but as the others, without fruit as they; for indeed, as the evangelist observes, the time of figs had not yet arrived. Its fault, if one may use the word, lay in its pretensions, in its making a show to run before the rest when it did not so indeed” (Trench, Miracles).
The fig-tree of Palestine (Ficus carica) produces two and sometimes three crops of figs in a year, (1) the bikkurah, or “early-ripe fig” (Micah 7:1; Isa. 28:4; Hos. 9:10, R.V.), which is ripe about the end of June, dropping off as soon as it is ripe (Nah. 3:12); (2) the kermus, or “summer fig,” then begins to be formed, and is ripe about August; and (3) the pag (plural “green figs,” Cant. 2:13; Gr. olynthos, Rev. 6:13, “the untimely fig”), or “winter fig,” which ripens in sheltered spots in spring.
(1.) For sacred purposes. The sacrifices were consumed by fire (Gen. 8:20). The ever-burning fire on the altar was first kindled from heaven (Lev. 6:9, 13; 9:24), and afterwards rekindled at the dedication of Solomon’s temple (2 Chr. 7:1, 3). The expressions “fire from heaven” and “fire of the Lord” generally denote lightning, but sometimes also the fire of the altar was so called (Ex. 29:18; Lev. 1:9; 2:3; 3:5, 9).
Fire for a sacred purpose obtained otherwise than from the altar was called “strange fire” (Lev. 10:1, 2; Num. 3:4).
The victims slain for sin offerings were afterwards consumed by fire outside the camp (Lev. 4:12, 21; 6:30; 16:27; Heb. 13:11).
(2.) For domestic purposes, such as baking, cooking, warmth, etc. (Jer. 36:22; Mark 14:54; John 18:18). But on Sabbath no fire for any domestic purpose was to be kindled (Ex. 35:3; Num. 15:32-36).
(3.) Punishment of death by fire was inflicted on such as were guilty of certain forms of unchastity and incest (Lev. 20:14; 21:9). The burning of captives in war was not unknown among the Jews (2 Sam. 12:31; Jer. 29:22). The bodies of infamous persons who were executed were also sometimes burned (Josh. 7:25; 2 Kings 23:16).
(4.) In war, fire was used in the destruction of cities, as Jericho (Josh. 6:24), Ai (8:19), Hazor (11:11), Laish (Judg. 18:27), etc. The war-chariots of the Canaanites were burnt (Josh. 11:6, 9, 13). The Israelites burned the images (2 Kings 10:26; R.V., “pillars”) of the house of Baal. These objects of worship seem to have been of the nature of obelisks, and were sometimes evidently made of wood.
Torches were sometimes carried by the soldiers in battle (Judg. 7:16).
(5.) Figuratively, fire is a symbol of Jehovah’s presence and the instrument of his power (Ex. 14:19; Num. 11:1, 3; Judg. 13:20; 1 Kings 18:38; 2 Kings 1:10, 12; 2:11; Isa. 6:4; Ezek. 1:4; Rev. 1:14, etc.).
God’s word is also likened unto fire (Jer. 23:29). It is referred to as an emblem of severe trials or misfortunes (Zech. 12:6; Luke 12:49; 1 Cor. 3:13, 15; 1 Pet. 1:7), and of eternal punishment (Matt. 5:22; Mark 9:44; Rev. 14:10; 21:8).
The influence of the Holy Ghost is likened unto fire (Matt. 3:11). His descent was denoted by the appearance of tongues as of fire (Acts 2:3).
Flame of fire
Is the chosen symbol of the holiness of God (Ex. 3:2; Rev. 2:18), as indicating “the intense, all-consuming operation of his holiness in relation to sin.”
The practice common among Oriental nations of colouring the forehead or impressing on it some distinctive mark as a sign of devotion to some deity is alluded to in Rev. 13:16, 17; 14:9; 17:5; 20:4.
The “jewel on thy forehead” mentioned in Ezek. 16:12 (R.V., “a ring upon thy nose”) was in all probability the “nose-ring” (Isa. 3:21).
In Ezek. 3:7 the word “impudent” is rightly rendered in the Revised Version “an hard forehead.” (See also ver. 8, 9.)
(Heb. lebonah; Gr. libanos, i.e., “white”), an odorous resin imported from Arabia (Isa. 60:6; Jer. 6:20), yet also growing in Palestine (Cant. 4:14). It was one of the ingredients in the perfume of the sanctuary (Ex. 30:34), and was used as an accompaniment of the meat-offering (Lev. 2:1, 16; 6:15; 24:7). When burnt it emitted a fragrant odour, and hence the incense became a symbol of the Divine name (Mal. 1:11; Cant. 1:3) and an emblem of prayer (Ps. 141:2; Luke 1:10; Rev. 5:8; 8:3).
This frankincense, or olibanum, used by the Jews in the temple services is not to be confounded with the frankincense of modern commerce, which is an exudation of the Norway spruce fir, the Pinus abies. It was probably a resin from the Indian tree known to botanists by the name of Boswellia serrata or thurifera, which grows to the height of forty feet.
(Heb. tsepharde’a, meaning a “marsh- leaper”). This reptile is mentioned in the Old Testament only in connection with one of the plagues which fell on the land of Egypt (Ex. 8:2-14; Ps. 78:45; 105:30).
In the New Testament this word occurs only in Rev. 16:13, where it is referred to as a symbol of uncleanness. The only species of frog existing in Palestine is the green frog (Rana esculenta), the well- known edible frog of the Continent.
A stadium, a Greek measure of distance equal to 606 feet and 9 inches (Luke 24:13; John 6:19; 11:18; Rev. 14:20; 21:16).
(1.) Chald. attun, a large furnace with a wide open mouth, at the top of which materials were cast in (Dan. 3:22, 23; comp. Jer. 29:22). This furnace would be in constant requisition, for the Babylonians disposed of their dead by cremation, as did also the Accadians who invaded Mesopotamia.
(2.) Heb. kibshan, a smelting furnace (Gen. 19:28), also a lime-kiln (Isa. 33:12; Amos 2:1).
(3.) Heb. kur, a refining furnace (Prov. 17:3; 27:21; Ezek. 22:18).
(4.) Heb. alil, a crucible; only used in Ps. 12:6.
(5.) Heb. tannur, oven for baking bread (Gen. 15:17; Isa. 31:9; Neh. 3:11). It was a large pot, narrowing towards the top. When it was heated by a fire made within, the dough was spread over the heated surface, and thus was baked. “A smoking furnace and a burning lamp” (Gen. 15:17), the symbol of the presence of the Almighty, passed between the divided pieces of Abraham’s sacrifice in ratification of the covenant God made with him. (See OVEN.)
(6.) Gr. kamnos, a furnace, kiln, or oven (Matt. 13:42, 50; Rev. 1:15; 9:2).
Mentioned in Scripture, of Eden (Gen. 2:8, 9); Ahab’s garden of herbs (1 Kings 21:2); the royal garden (2 Kings 21:18); the royal garden at Susa (Esther 1:5); the garden of Joseph of Arimathea (John 19:41); of Gethsemane (John 18:1).
The “king’s garden” mentioned 2 Kings 25:4, Neh. 3:15, was near the Pool of Siloam.
Gardens were surrounded by hedges of thorns (Isa. 5:5) or by walls of stone (Prov. 24:31). “Watch-towers” or “lodges” were also built in them (Isa. 1:8; Mark 12:1), in which their keepers sat. On account of their retirement they were frequently used as places for secret prayer and communion with God (Gen. 24:63; Matt. 26:30-36; John 1:48; 18:1, 2). The dead were sometimes buried in gardens (Gen. 23:19, 20; 2 Kings 21:18, 26; 1 Sam. 25:1; Mark 15:46; John 19:41). (See PARADISE.)
(1.) Of cities, as of Jerusalem (Jer. 37:13; Neh. 1:3; 2:3; 3:3), of Sodom (Gen. 19:1), of Gaza (Judg. 16:3).
(2.) Of royal palaces (Neh. 2:8).
(3.) Of the temple of Solomon (1 Kings 6:34, 35; 2 Kings 18:16); of the holy place (1 Kings 6:31, 32; Ezek. 41:23, 24); of the outer courts of the temple, the beautiful gate (Acts 3:2).
(4.) Tombs (Matt. 27:60).
(5.) Prisons (Acts 12:10; 16:27).
(6.) Caverns (1 Kings 19:13).
(7.) Camps (Ex. 32:26, 27; Heb. 13:12).
The materials of which gates were made were,
(1.) Iron and brass (Ps. 107:16; Isa. 45:2; Acts 12:10).
(2.) Stones and pearls (Isa. 54:12; Rev. 21:21).
(3.) Wood (Judg. 16:3) probably.
At the gates of cities courts of justice were frequently held, and hence “judges of the gate” are spoken of (Deut. 16:18; 17:8; 21:19; 25:6, 7, etc.). At the gates prophets also frequently delivered their messages (Prov. 1:21; 8:3; Isa. 29:21; Jer. 17:19, 20; 26:10). Criminals were punished without the gates (1 Kings 21:13; Acts 7:59). By the “gates of righteousness” we are probably to understand those of the temple (Ps. 118:19). “The gates of hell” (R.V., “gates of Hades”) Matt. 16:18, are generally interpreted as meaning the power of Satan, but probably they may mean the power of death, denoting that the Church of Christ shall never die.
(originally Ge bene Hinnom; i.e., “the valley of the sons of Hinnom”), a deep, narrow glen to the south of Jerusalem, where the idolatrous Jews offered their children in sacrifice to Molech (2 Chr. 28:3; 33:6; Jer. 7:31; 19:2-6). This valley afterwards became the common receptacle for all the refuse of the city. Here the dead bodies of animals and of criminals, and all kinds of filth, were cast and consumed by fire kept always burning. It thus in process of time became the image of the place of everlasting destruction. In this sense it is used by our Lord in Matt. 5:22, 29, 30; 10:28; 18:9; 23:15, 33; Mark 9:43, 45, 47; Luke 12:5. In these passages, and also in James 3:6, the word is uniformly rendered “hell,” the Revised Version placing “Gehenna” in the margin. (See HELL; HINNOM.)
(Heb., usually in plural, goyim), meaning in general all nations except the Jews. In course of time, as the Jews began more and more to pride themselves on their peculiar privileges, it acquired unpleasant associations, and was used as a term of contempt.
In the New Testament the Greek word Hellenes, meaning literally Greek (as in Acts 16:1, 3; 18:17; Rom. 1:14), generally denotes any non-Jewish nation.
(Heb. kabhod; Gr. doxa). (1.) Abundance, wealth, treasure, and hence honour (Ps. 49:12); glory (Gen. 31:1; Matt. 4:8; Rev. 21:24, 26).
(2.) Honour, dignity (1 Kings 3:13; Heb. 2:7 1 Pet. 1:24); of God (Ps. 19:1; 29:1); of the mind or heart (Gen. 49:6; Ps. 7:5; Acts 2:46).
(3.) Splendour, brightness, majesty (Gen. 45:13; Isa. 4:5; Acts 22:11; 2 Cor. 3:7); of Jehovah (Isa. 59:19; 60:1; 2 Thess. 1:9).
(4.) The glorious moral attributes, the infinite perfections of God (Isa. 40:5; Acts 7:2; Rom. 1:23; 9:23; Eph. 1:12). Jesus is the “brightness of the Father’s glory” (Heb. 1:3; John 1:14; 2:11).
(5.) The bliss of heaven (Rom. 2:7, 10; 5:2; 8:18; Heb. 2:10; 1 Pet. 5:1, 10).
(6.) The phrase “Give glory to God” (Josh. 7:19; Jer. 13:16) is a Hebrew idiom meaning, “Confess your sins.” The words of the Jews to the blind man, “Give God the praise” (John 9:24), are an adjuration to confess. They are equivalent to, “Confess that you are an impostor,” “Give God the glory by speaking the truth;” for they denied that a miracle had been wrought.
(A.S. and Dutch God; Dan. Gud; Ger. Gott), the name of the Divine Being. It is the rendering (1) of the Hebrew ’El, from a word meaning to be strong; (2) of ’Eloah_, plural _’Elohim. The singular form, Eloah, is used only in poetry. The plural form is more commonly used in all parts of the Bible, The Hebrew word Jehovah (q.v.), the only other word generally employed to denote the Supreme Being, is uniformly rendered in the Authorized Version by “LORD,” printed in small capitals. The existence of God is taken for granted in the Bible. There is nowhere any argument to prove it. He who disbelieves this truth is spoken of as one devoid of understanding (Ps. 14:1).
The arguments generally adduced by theologians in proof of the being of God are:
(1.) The a priori argument, which is the testimony afforded by reason.
(2.) The a posteriori argument, by which we proceed logically from the facts of experience to causes. These arguments are,
(a) The cosmological, by which it is proved that there must be a First Cause of all things, for every effect must have a cause.
(b) The teleological, or the argument from design. We see everywhere the operations of an intelligent Cause in nature.
(c) The moral argument, called also the anthropological argument, based on the moral consciousness and the history of mankind, which exhibits a moral order and purpose which can only be explained on the supposition of the existence of God. Conscience and human history testify that “verily there is a God that judgeth in the earth.”
The attributes of God are set forth in order by Moses in Ex. 34:6,7. (see also Deut. 6:4; 10:17; Num. 16:22; Ex. 15:11; 33:19; Isa. 44:6; Hab. 3:6; Ps. 102:26; Job 34:12.) They are also systematically classified in Rev. 5:12 and 7:12.
God’s attributes are spoken of by some as absolute, i.e., such as belong to his essence as Jehovah, Jah, etc.; and relative, i.e., such as are ascribed to him with relation to his creatures. Others distinguish them into communicable, i.e., those which can be imparted in degree to his creatures: goodness, holiness, wisdom, etc.; and incommunicable, which cannot be so imparted: independence, immutability, immensity, and eternity. They are by some also divided into natural attributes, eternity, immensity, etc.; and moral, holiness, goodness, etc.
(1.) A Reubenite (1 Chr. 5:4), the father of Shimei.
(2.) The name of the leader of the hostile party described in Ezek. 38,39, as coming from the “north country” and assailing the people of Israel to their own destruction. This prophecy has been regarded as fulfilled in the conflicts of the Maccabees with Antiochus, the invasion and overthrow of the Chaldeans, and the temporary successes and destined overthrow of the Turks. But “all these interpretations are unsatisfactory and inadequate. The vision respecting Gog and Magog in the Apocalypse (Rev. 20:8) is in substance a reannouncement of this prophecy of Ezekiel. But while Ezekiel contemplates the great conflict in a more general light as what was certainly to be connected with the times of the Messiah, and should come then to its last decisive issues, John, on the other hand, writing from the commencement of the Messiah’s times, describes there the last struggles and victories of the cause of Christ. In both cases alike the vision describes the final workings of the world’s evil and its results in connection with the kingdom of God, only the starting- point is placed further in advance in the one case than in the other.”
It has been supposed to be the name of a district in the wild north-east steppes of Central Asia, north of the Hindu-Kush, now a part of Turkestan, a region about 2,000 miles north-east of Nineveh.
The fruit of the vine, which was extensively cultivated in Palestine. Grapes are spoken of as “tender” (Cant. 2:13, 15), “unripe” (Job 15:33), “sour” (Isa. 18:5), “wild” (Isa. 5:2,4). (See Rev. 14:18; Micah 7:1; Jer. 6:9; Ezek. 18:2, for figurative use of the word.) (See VINE.)
That which is out of sight, a Greek word used to denote the state or place of the dead. All the dead alike go into this place. To be buried, to go down to the grave, to descend into hades, are equivalent expressions. In the LXX. this word is the usual rendering of the Hebrew sheol, the common receptacle of the departed (Gen. 42:38; Ps. 139:8; Hos. 13:14; Isa. 14:9). This term is of comparatively rare occurrence in the Greek New Testament. Our Lord speaks of Capernaum as being “brought down to hell” (hades), i.e., simply to the lowest debasement, (Matt. 11:23). It is contemplated as a kind of kingdom which could never overturn the foundation of Christ’s kingdom (16:18), i.e., Christ’s church can never die.
In Luke 16:23 it is most distinctly associated with the doom and misery of the lost.
In Acts 2:27-31 Peter quotes the LXX. version of Ps. 16:8-11, plainly for the purpose of proving our Lord’s resurrection from the dead. David was left in the place of the dead, and his body saw corruption. Not so with Christ. According to ancient prophecy (Ps. 30:3) he was recalled to life.
Frozen rain-drops; one of the plagues of Egypt (Ex. 9:23). It is mentioned by Haggai as a divine judgment (Hag. 2:17). A hail-storm destroyed the army of the Amorites when they fought against Joshua (Josh. 10:11). Ezekiel represents the wall daubed with untempered mortar as destroyed by great hail-stones (Ezek. 13:11). (See also 38:22; Rev. 8:7; 11:19; 16:21.)
Praise ye Jehovah, frequently rendered “Praise ye the LORD,” stands at the beginning of ten of the psalms (106, 111-113, 135, 146-150), hence called “hallelujah psalms.” From its frequent occurrence it grew into a formula of praise. The Greek form of the word (alleluia) is found in Rev. 19:1, 3, 4, 6.
(1.) Heb. zonah (Gen. 34:31; 38:15). In verses 21, 22 the Hebrew word used in kedeshah, i.e., a woman consecrated or devoted to prostitution in connection with the abominable worship of Asherah or Astarte, the Syrian Venus. This word is also used in Deut. 23:17; Hos. 4:14. Thus Tamar sat by the wayside as a consecrated kedeshah.
It has been attempted to show that Rahab, usually called a “harlot” (Josh. 2:1; 6:17; Heb. 11:31; James 2:25), was only an innkeeper. This interpretation, however, cannot be maintained.
Jephthah’s mother is called a “strange woman” (Judg. 11:2). This, however, merely denotes that she was of foreign extraction.
In the time of Solomon harlots appeared openly in the streets, and he solemnly warns against association with them (Prov. 7:12; 9:14. See also Jer. 3:2; Ezek. 16:24, 25, 31). The Revised Version, following the LXX., has “and the harlots washed,” etc., instead of the rendering of the Authorized Version, “now they washed,” of 1 Kings 22:38.
To commit fornication is metaphorically used for to practice idolatry (Jer. 3:1; Ezek. 16:15; Hos. throughout); hence Jerusalem is spoken of as a harlot (Isa. 1:21).
(2.) Heb. nokriyah, the “strange woman” (1 Kings 11:1; Prov. 5:20; 7:5; 23:27). Those so designated were Canaanites and other Gentiles (Josh. 23:13). To the same class belonged the “foolish”, i.e., the sinful, “woman.”
In the New Testament the Greek pornai, plural, “harlots,” occurs in Matt. 21:31,32, where they are classed with publicans; Luke 15:30; 1 Cor. 6:15,16; Heb. 11:31; James 2:25. It is used symbolically in Rev. 17:1, 5, 15, 16; 19:2.
(Heb. kinnor), the national instrument of the Hebrews. It was invented by Jubal (Gen. 4:21). Some think the word kinnor denotes the whole class of stringed instruments. It was used as an accompaniment to songs of cheerfulness as well as of praise to God (Gen. 31:27; 1 Sam. 16:23; 2 Chr. 20:28; Ps. 33:2; 137:2).
In Solomon’s time harps were made of almug-trees (1 Kings 10:11, 12). In 1 Chr. 15:21 mention is made of “harps on the Sheminith;” Revised Version, “harps set to the Sheminith;” better perhaps “harps of eight strings.” The soothing effect of the music of the harp is referred to 1 Sam. 16:16, 23; 18:10; 19:9. The church in heaven is represented as celebrating the triumphs of the Redeemer “harping with their harps” (Rev. 14:2).
(1.) Definitions. The phrase “heaven and earth” is used to indicate the whole universe (Gen. 1:1; Jer. 23:24; Acts 17:24). According to the Jewish notion there were three heavens,
(a) The firmament, as “fowls of the heaven” (Gen. 2:19; 7:3, 23; Ps. 8:8, etc.), “the eagles of heaven” (Lam. 4:19), etc.
(b) The starry heavens (Deut. 17:3; Jer. 8:2; Matt. 24:29).
(c) “The heaven of heavens,” or “the third heaven” (Deut. 10:14; 1 Kings 8:27; Ps. 115:16; 148:4; 2 Cor. 12:2).
(2.) Meaning of words in the original,
(a) The usual Hebrew word for “heavens” is shamayim, a plural form meaning “heights,” “elevations” (Gen. 1:1; 2:1).
(b) The Hebrew word marom is also used (Ps. 68:18; 93:4; 102:19, etc.) as equivalent to shamayim, “high places,” “heights.”
(c) Heb. galgal, literally a “wheel,” is rendered “heaven” in Ps. 77:18 (R.V., “whirlwind”).
(d) Heb. shahak, rendered “sky” (Deut. 33:26; Job 37:18; Ps. 18:11), plural “clouds” (Job 35:5; 36:28; Ps. 68:34, marg. “heavens”), means probably the firmament.
(e) Heb. rakia is closely connected with (d), and is rendered “firmamentum” in the Vulgate, whence our “firmament” (Gen. 1:6; Deut. 33:26, etc.), regarded as a solid expanse.
(3.) Metaphorical meaning of term. Isa. 14:13, 14; “doors of heaven” (Ps. 78:23); heaven “shut” (1 Kings 8:35); “opened” (Ezek. 1:1). (See 1 Chr. 21:16.)
(4.) Spiritual meaning. The place of the everlasting blessedness of the righteous; the abode of departed spirits.
(a) Christ calls it his “Father’s house” (John 14:2).
(b) It is called “paradise” (Luke 23:43; 2 Cor. 12:4; Rev. 2:7).
(c) “The heavenly Jerusalem” (Gal. 4: 26; Heb. 12:22; Rev. 3:12).
(d) The “kingdom of heaven” (Matt. 25:1; James 2:5).
(e) The “eternal kingdom” (2 Pet. 1:11).
(f) The “eternal inheritance” (1 Pet. 1:4; Heb. 9:15).
(g) The “better country” (Heb. 11:14, 16).
(h) The blessed are said to “sit down with Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob,” and to be “in Abraham’s bosom” (Luke 16:22; Matt. 8:11); to “reign with Christ” (2 Tim. 2:12); and to enjoy “rest” (Heb. 4:10, 11).
In heaven the blessedness of the righteous consists in the possession of “life everlasting,” “an eternal weight of glory” (2 Cor. 4:17), an exemption from all sufferings for ever, a deliverance from all evils (2 Cor. 5:1, 2) and from the society of the wicked (2 Tim. 4:18), bliss without termination, the “fulness of joy” for ever (Luke 20:36; 2 Cor. 4:16, 18; 1 Pet. 1:4; 5:10; 1 John 3:2). The believer’s heaven is not only a state of everlasting blessedness, but also a “place”, a place “prepared” for them (John 14:2).
Derived from the Saxon helan, to cover; hence the covered or the invisible place. In Scripture there are three words so rendered:
(1.) Sheol, occurring in the Old Testament sixty-five times. This word sheol is derived from a root-word meaning “to ask,” “demand;” hence insatiableness (Prov. 30:15, 16). It is rendered “grave” thirty-one times (Gen. 37:35; 42:38; 44:29, 31; 1 Sam. 2:6, etc.). The Revisers have retained this rendering in the historical books with the original word in the margin, while in the poetical books they have reversed this rule.
In thirty-one cases in the Authorized Version this word is rendered “hell,” the place of disembodied spirits. The inhabitants of sheol are “the congregation of the dead” (Prov. 21:16). It is (a) the abode of the wicked (Num. 16:33; Job 24:19; Ps. 9:17; 31:17, etc.); (b) of the good (Ps. 16:10; 30:3; 49:15; 86:13, etc.).
Sheol is described as deep (Job 11:8), dark (10:21, 22), with bars (17:16). The dead “go down” to it (Num. 16:30, 33; Ezek. 31:15, 16, 17).
(2.) The Greek word hades of the New Testament has the same scope of signification as sheol of the Old Testament. It is a prison (1 Pet. 3:19), with gates and bars and locks (Matt. 16:18; Rev. 1:18), and it is downward (Matt. 11:23; Luke 10:15).
The righteous and the wicked are separated. The blessed dead are in that part of hades called paradise (Luke 23:43). They are also said to be in Abraham’s bosom (Luke 16:22).
(3.) Gehenna, in most of its occurrences in the Greek New Testament, designates the place of the lost (Matt. 23:33). The fearful nature of their condition there is described in various figurative expressions (Matt. 8:12; 13:42; 22:13; 25:30; Luke 16:24, etc.). (See HINNOM.)
In the highest sense belongs to God (Isa. 6:3; Rev. 15:4), and to Christians as consecrated to God’s service, and in so far as they are conformed in all things to the will of God (Rom. 6:19, 22; Eph. 1:4; Titus 1:8; 1 Pet. 1:15). Personal holiness is a work of gradual development. It is carried on under many hindrances, hence the frequent admonitions to watchfulness, prayer, and perseverance (1 Cor. 1:30; 2 Cor. 7:1; Eph. 4:23, 24). (See SANCTIFICATION.)
The third Person of the adorable Trinity.
His personality is proved (1) from the fact that the attributes of personality, as intelligence and volition, are ascribed to him (John 14:17, 26; 15:26; 1 Cor. 2:10, 11; 12:11). He reproves, helps, glorifies, intercedes (John 16:7-13; Rom. 8:26). (2) He executes the offices peculiar only to a person. The very nature of these offices involves personal distinction (Luke 12:12; Acts 5:32; 15:28; 16:6; 28:25; 1 Cor. 2:13; Heb. 2:4; 3:7; 2 Pet. 1:21).
His divinity is established (1) from the fact that the names of God are ascribed to him (Ex. 17:7; Ps. 95:7; comp. Heb. 3:7-11); and (2) that divine attributes are also ascribed to him, omnipresence (Ps. 139:7; Eph. 2:17, 18; 1 Cor. 12:13); omniscience (1 Cor. 2:10, 11); omnipotence (Luke 1:35; Rom. 8:11); eternity (Heb. 9:4). (3) Creation is ascribed to him (Gen. 1:2; Job 26:13; Ps. 104:30), and the working of miracles (Matt. 12:28; 1 Cor. 12:9-11). (4) Worship is required and ascribed to him (Isa. 6:3; Acts 28:25; Rom. 9:1; Rev. 1:4; Matt. 28:19).
A fragrant composition prepared by the “art of the apothecary.” It consisted of four ingredients “beaten small” (Ex. 30:34-36). That which was not thus prepared was called “strange incense” (30:9). It was offered along with every meat-offering; and besides was daily offered on the golden altar in the holy place, and on the great day of atonement was burnt by the high priest in the holy of holies (30:7, 8). It was the symbol of prayer (Ps. 141:1,2; Rev. 5:8; 8:3, 4).
Intercession of Christ
Christ’s priestly office consists of these two parts, (1) the offering up of himself as a sacrifice, and (2) making continual intercession for us.
When on earth he made intercession for his people (Luke 23:34; John 17:20; Heb. 5:7); but now he exercises this function of his priesthood in heaven, where he is said to appear in the presence of God for us (Heb. 9:12,24).
His advocacy with the Father for his people rests on the basis of his own all-perfect sacrifice. Thus he pleads for and obtains the fulfilment of all the promises of the everlasting covenant (1 John 2:1; John 17:24; Heb. 7:25). He can be “touched with the feeling of our infirmities,” and is both a merciful and a faithful high priest (Heb. 2:17, 18; 4:15, 16). This intercession is an essential part of his mediatorial work. Through him we have “access” to the Father (John 14:6; Eph. 2:18; 3:12). “The communion of his people with the Father will ever be sustained through him as mediatorial Priest” (Ps. 110:4; Rev. 7:17).
(Heb. pl. shenhabbim, the “tusks of elephants”) was early used in decorations by the Egyptians, and a great trade in it was carried on by the Assyrians (Ezek. 27:6; Rev. 18:12). It was used by the Phoenicians to ornament the box-wood rowing-benches of their galleys, and Hiram’s skilled workmen made Solomon’s throne of ivory (1 Kings 10:18). It was brought by the caravans of Dedan (Isa. 21:13), and from the East Indies by the navy of Tarshish (1 Kings 10:22). Many specimens of ancient Egyptian and Assyrian ivory- work have been preserved. The word habbim is derived from the Sanscrit ibhas, meaning “elephant,” preceded by the Hebrew article (ha); and hence it is argued that Ophir, from which it and the other articles mentioned in 1 Kings 10:22 were brought, was in India.
Properly a flower of a reddish blue or deep purple (hyacinth), and hence a precious stone of that colour (Rev. 21:20). It has been supposed to designate the same stone as the ligure (Heb. leshem) mentioned in Ex. 28:19 as the first stone of the third row in the high priest’s breast-plate. In Rev. 9:17 the word is simply descriptive of colour.
(Heb. yashpheh, “glittering”), a gem of various colours, one of the twelve inserted in the high priest’s breast-plate (Ex. 28:20). It is named in the building of the New Jerusalem (Rev. 21:18, 19). It was “most precious,” “clear as crystal” (21:11). It was emblematic of the glory of God (4:3).
The special and significant name (not merely an appellative title such as Lord [adonai]) by which God revealed himself to the ancient Hebrews (Ex. 6:2, 3). This name, the Tetragrammaton of the Greeks, was held by the later Jews to be so sacred that it was never pronounced except by the high priest on the great Day of Atonement, when he entered into the most holy place. Whenever this name occurred in the sacred books they pronounced it, as they still do, “Adonai” (i.e., Lord), thus using another word in its stead. The Massorets gave to it the vowel-points appropriate to this word. This Jewish practice was founded on a false interpretation of Lev. 24:16. The meaning of the word appears from Ex. 3:14 to be “the unchanging, eternal, self-existent God,” the “I am that I am,” a convenant- keeping God. (Comp. Mal. 3:6; Hos. 12:5; Rev. 1:4, 8.)
The Hebrew name “Jehovah” is generally translated in the Authorized Version (and the Revised Version has not departed from this rule) by the word LORD printed in small capitals, to distinguish it from the rendering of the Hebrew Adonai and the Greek Kurios, which are also rendered Lord, but printed in the usual type. The Hebrew word is translated “Jehovah” only in Ex. 6:3; Ps. 83:18; Isa. 12:2; 26:4, and in the compound names mentioned below.
It is worthy of notice that this name is never used in the LXX., the Samaritan Pentateuch, the Apocrypha, or in the New Testament. It is found, however, on the “Moabite stone” (q.v.), and consequently it must have been in the days of Mesba so commonly pronounced by the Hebrews as to be familiar to their heathen neighbours.
(1.) One who, with Annas and Caiaphas, sat in judgment on the apostles Peter and John (Acts 4:6). He was of the kindred of the high priest; otherwise unknown.
(2.) The Hebrew name of Mark (q.v.). He is designated by this name in the acts of the Apostles (12:12, 25; 13:5,13; 15:37).
(3.) THE APOSTLE, brother of James the “Greater” (Matt. 4:21; 10:2; Mark 1:19; 3:17; 10:35). He was one, probably the younger, of the sons of Zebedee (Matt. 4:21) and Salome (Matt. 27:56; comp. Mark 15:40), and was born at Bethsaida. His father was apparently a man of some wealth (comp. Mark 1:20; Luke 5:3; John 19:27). He was doubtless trained in all that constituted the ordinary education of Jewish youth. When he grew up he followed the occupation of a fisherman on the Lake of Galilee. When John the Baptist began his ministry in the wilderness of Judea, John, with many others, gathered round him, and was deeply influenced by his teaching. There he heard the announcement, “Behold the Lamb of God,” and forthwith, on the invitation of Jesus, became a disciple and ranked among his followers (John 1:36, 37) for a time. He and his brother then returned to their former avocation, for how long is uncertain. Jesus again called them (Matt. 4: 21; Luke 5:1-11), and now they left all and permanently attached themselves to the company of his disciples. He became one of the innermost circle (Mark 5:37; Matt. 17:1; 26:37; Mark 13:3). He was the disciple whom Jesus loved. In zeal and intensity of character he was a “Boanerges” (Mark 3:17). This spirit once and again broke out (Matt. 20:20-24; Mark 10:35-41; Luke 9:49, 54). At the betrayal he and Peter follow Christ afar off, while the others betake themselves to hasty flight (John 18:15). At the trial he follows Christ into the council chamber, and thence to the praetorium (18:16, 19, 28) and to the place of crucifixion (19:26, 27). To him and Peter, Mary first conveys tidings of the resurrection (20:2), and they are the first to go and see what her strange words mean. After the resurrection he and Peter again return to the Sea of Galilee, where the Lord reveals himself to them (21:1, 7). We find Peter and John frequently after this together (Acts 3:1; 4:13). John remained apparently in Jerusalem as the leader of the church there (Acts 15:6; Gal. 2:9). His subsequent history is unrecorded. He was not there, however, at the time of Paul’s last visit (Acts 21:15-40). He appears to have retired to Ephesus, but at what time is unknown. The seven churches of Asia were the objects of his special care (Rev. 1:11). He suffered under persecution, and was banished to Patmos (1:9); whence he again returned to Ephesus, where he died, probably about A.D. 98, having outlived all or nearly all the friends and companions even of his maturer years. There are many interesting traditions regarding John during his residence at Ephesus, but these cannot claim the character of historical truth.
Healed by Jehovah, or Jehovah will support. The son of Amon, and his successor on the throne of Judah (2 Kings 22:1; 2 Chr. 34:1). His history is contained in 2 Kings 22, 23. He stands foremost among all the kings of the line of David for unswerving loyalty to Jehovah (23:25). He “did that which was right in the sight of the Lord, and walked in all the way of David his father.” He ascended the throne at the early age of eight years, and it appears that not till eight years afterwards did he begin “to seek after the God of David his father.” At that age he devoted himself to God. He distinguished himself by beginning a war of extermination against the prevailing idolatry, which had practically been the state religion for some seventy years (2 Chr. 34:3; comp. Jer. 25:3, 11, 29).
In the eighteenth year of his reign he proceeded to repair and beautify the temple, which by time and violence had become sorely dilapidated (2 Kings 22:3, 5, 6; 23:23; 2 Chr. 34:11). While this work was being carried on, Hilkiah, the high priest, discovered a roll, which was probably the original copy of the law, the entire Pentateuch, written by Moses.
When this book was read to him, the king was alarmed by the things it contained, and sent for Huldah, the “prophetess,” for her counsel. She spoke to him words of encouragement, telling him that he would be gathered to his fathers in peace before the threatened days of judgment came. Josiah immediately gathered the people together, and engaged them in a renewal of their ancient national covenant with God. The Passover was then celebrated, as in the days of his great predecessor, Hezekiah, with unusual magnificence. Nevertheless, “the Lord turned not from the fierceness of his great wrath wherewith his anger was kindled against Judah” (2 Kings 22:3-20; 23:21-27; 2 Chr. 35:1- 19). During the progress of this great religious revolution Jeremiah helped it on by his earnest exhortations.
Soon after this, Pharaoh-Necho II. (q.v.), king of Egypt, in an expedition against the king of Assyria, with the view of gaining possession of Carchemish, sought a passage through the territory of Judah for his army. This Josiah refused to permit. He had probably entered into some new alliance with the king of Assyria, and faithful to his word he sought to oppose the progress of Necho.
The army of Judah went out and encountered that of Egypt at Megiddo, on the verge of the plain of Esdraelon. Josiah went into the field in disguise, and was fatally wounded by a random arrow. His attendants conveyed him toward Jerusalem, but had only reached Hadadrimmon, a few miles south of Megiddo, when he died (2 Kings 23:28, 30; comp. 2 Chr. 35:20-27), after a reign of thirty-one years. He was buried with the greatest honours in fulfilment of Huldah’s prophecy (2 Kings 22:20; comp. Jer. 34:5). Jeremiah composed a funeral elegy on this the best of the kings of Israel (Lam. 4:20; 2 Chr. 35:25). The outburst of national grief on account of his death became proverbial (Zech. 12:11; comp. Rev. 16:16).
(1.) The patriarch Judah, son of Jacob (Luke 3:33; Heb. 7:14). In Luke 1:39; Heb. 7:14; Rev. 5:5; 7:5, the word refers to the tribe of Judah.
(2.) The father of Simeon in Christ’s maternal ancestry (Luke 3:30).
(3.) Son of Joanna, and father of Joseph in Christ’s maternal ancestry (26), probably identical with Abiud (Matt. 1:13), and with Obadiah (1 Chr. 3:21).
(4.) One of the Lord’s “brethren” (Mark 6:3).
Judgments of God
(1.) The secret decisions of God’s will (Ps. 110:5; 36:6). (2.) The revelations of his will (Ex. 21:1; Deut. 6:20; Ps. 119:7-175). (3.) The infliction of punishment on the wicked (Ex. 6:6; 12:12; Ezek. 25:11; Rev. 16:7), such as is mentioned in Gen. 7; 19:24,25; Judg. 1:6,7; Acts 5:1-10, etc.
Judgment, The final
The sentence that will be passed on our actions at the last day (Matt. 25; Rom. 14:10, 11; 2 Cor. 5:10; 2 Thess. 1:7-10).
The judge is Jesus Christ, as mediator. All judgment is committed to him (Acts 17:31; John 5:22, 27; Rev. 1:7). “It pertains to him as mediator to complete and publicly manifest the salvation of his people and the overthrow of his enemies, together with the glorious righteousness of his work in both respects.”
The persons to be judged are, (1) the whole race of Adam without a single exception (Matt. 25:31-46; 1 Cor. 15:51, 52; Rev. 20:11-15); and (2) the fallen angels (2 Pet. 2:4; Jude 1:6).
The rule of judgment is the standard of God’s law as revealed to men, the heathen by the law as written on their hearts (Luke 12:47,48; Rom. 2:12-16); the Jew who “sinned in the law shall be judged by the law” (Rom. 2:12); the Christian enjoying the light of revelation, by the will of God as made known to him (Matt. 11:20-24; John 3:19). Then the secrets of all hearts will be brought to light (1 Cor. 4:5; Luke 8:17; 12:2,3) to vindicate the justice of the sentence pronounced.
The time of the judgment will be after the resurrection (Heb. 9:27; Acts 17:31).
As the Scriptures represent the final judgment “as certain [Eccl. 11:9], universal [2 Cor. 5:10], righteous [Rom. 2:5], decisive [1 Cor. 15:52], and eternal as to its consequences [Heb. 6:2], let us be concerned for the welfare of our immortal interests, flee to the refuge set before us, improve our precious time, depend on the merits of the Redeemer, and adhere to the dictates of the divine word, that we may be found of him in peace.”
Frequently mentioned in Scripture. It is called in Hebrew maphteah, i.e., the opener (Judg. 3:25); and in the Greek New Testament kleis, from its use in shutting (Matt. 16:19; Luke 11:52; Rev. 1:18, etc.). Figures of ancient Egyptian keys are frequently found on the monuments, also of Assyrian locks and keys of wood, and of a large size (comp. Isa. 22:22).
The word is used figuratively of power or authority or office (Isa. 22:22; Rev. 3:7; Rev. 1:8; comp. 9:1; 20:1; comp. also Matt. 16:19; 18:18). The “key of knowledge” (Luke 11:52; comp. Matt. 23:13) is the means of attaining the knowledge regarding the kingdom of God. The “power of the keys” is a phrase in general use to denote the extent of ecclesiastical authority.The word is used figuratively of power or authority or office (Isa. 22:22; Rev. 3:7; Rev. 1:8; comp. 9:1; 20:1; comp. also Matt. 16:19; 18:18). The “key of knowledge” (Luke 11:52; comp. Matt. 23:13) is the means of attaining the knowledge regarding the kingdom of God. The “power of the keys” is a phrase in general use to denote the extent of ecclesiastical authority.
Is in Scripture very generally used to denote one invested with authority, whether extensive or limited. There were thirty-one kings in Canaan (Josh. 12:9, 24), whom Joshua subdued. Adonibezek subdued seventy kings (Judg. 1:7). In the New Testament the Roman emperor is spoken of as a king (1 Pet. 2:13, 17); and Herod Antipas, who was only a tetrarch, is also called a king (Matt. 14:9; Mark 6:22).
This title is applied to God (1 Tim. 1:17), and to Christ, the Son of God (1 Tim. 6:15, 16; Matt. 27:11). The people of God are also called “kings” (Dan. 7:22, 27; Matt. 19:28; Rev. 1:6, etc.). Death is called the “king of terrors” (Job 18:14).
Jehovah was the sole King of the Jewish nation (1 Sam. 8:7; Isa. 33:22). But there came a time in the history of that people when a king was demanded, that they might be like other nations (1 Sam. 8:5). The prophet Samuel remonstrated with them, but the people cried out, “Nay, but we will have a king over us.” The misconduct of Samuel’s sons was the immediate cause of this demand.
The Hebrew kings did not rule in their own right, nor in name of the people who had chosen them, but partly as servants and partly as representatives of Jehovah, the true King of Israel (1 Sam. 10:1). The limits of the king’s power were prescribed (1 Sam. 10:25). The officers of his court were, (1) the recorder or remembrancer (2 Sam. 8:16; 1 Kings 4:3); (2) the scribe (2 Sam. 8:17; 20:25); (3) the officer over the house, the chief steward (Isa. 22:15); (4) the “king’s friend,” a confidential companion (1 Kings 4:5); (5) the keeper of the wardrobe (2 Kings 22:14); (6) captain of the bodyguard (2 Sam. 20:23); (7) officers over the king’s treasures, etc. (1 Chr. 27:25-31); (8) commander- in-chief of the army (1 Chr. 27:34); (9) the royal counsellor (1 Chr. 27:32; 2 Sam. 16:20-23).
“Though Orientals are very jealous of their privacy, they never knock when about to enter your room, but walk in without warning or ceremony. It is nearly impossible to teach an Arab servant to knock at your door. They give warning at the outer gate either by calling or knocking. To stand and call is a very common and respectful mode. Thus Moses commanded the holder of a pledge to stand without and call to the owner to come forth (Deut. 24:10). This was to avoid the violent intrusion of cruel creditors. Peter stood knocking at the outer door (Acts 12:13, 16), and the three men sent to Joppa by Cornelius made inquiry and ‘stood before the gate’ (10:17, 18). The idea is that the guard over your privacy is to be placed at the entrance.”
Knocking is used as a sign of importunity (Matt. 7:7, 8; Luke 13:25), and of the coming of Christ (Luke 12:36; Rev. 3:20).
(1.) Heb. kebes, a male lamb from the first to the third year. Offered daily at the morning and the evening sacrifice (Ex. 29:38-42), on the Sabbath day (Num. 28:9), at the feast of the New Moon (28:11), of Trumpets (29:2), of Tabernacles (13-40), of Pentecost (Lev. 23:18-20), and of the Passover (Ex. 12:5), and on many other occasions (1 Chr. 29:21; 2 Chr. 29:21; Lev. 9:3; 14:10-25).
(2.) Heb. taleh, a young sucking lamb (1 Sam. 7:9; Isa. 65:25). In the symbolical language of Scripture the lamb is the type of meekness and innocence (Isa. 11:6; 65:25; Luke 10:3; John 21:15).
The lamb was a symbol of Christ (Gen. 4:4; Ex. 12:3; 29:38; Isa. 16:1; 53:7; John 1:36; Rev. 13:8).
Christ is called the Lamb of God (John 1:29, 36), as the great sacrifice of which the former sacrifices were only types (Num. 6:12; Lev. 14:12-17; Isa. 53:7; 1 Cor. 5:7).
The city of this name mentioned in Scripture lay on the confines of Phrygia and Lydia, about 40 miles east of Ephesus (Rev. 3:14), on the banks of the Lycus. It was originally called Diospolis and then Rhoas, but afterwards Laodicea, from Laodice, the wife of Antiochus II., king of Syria, who rebuilt it. It was one of the most important and flourishing cities of Asia Minor. At a very early period it became one of the chief seats of Christianity (Col. 2:1; 4:15; Rev. 1:11, etc.). It is now a deserted place, called by the Turks Eski-hissar or “old castle.”
(Heb. namer, so called because spotted, Cant. 4:8), was that great spotted feline which anciently infested the mountains of Syria, more appropriately called a panther (Felis pardus). Its fierceness (Isa. 11:6), its watching for its prey (Jer. 5:6), its swiftness (Hab. 1:8), and the spots of its skin (Jer. 13:23), are noticed. This word is used symbolically (Dan. 7:6; Rev. 13:2).
An intentional violation of the truth. Lies are emphatically condemned in Scripture (John 8:44; 1 Tim. 1:9, 10; Rev. 21:27; 22:15). Mention is made of the lies told by good men, as by Abraham (Gen. 12:12, 13; 20:2), Isaac (26:7), and Jacob (27:24); also by the Hebrew midwives (Ex. 1:15-19), by Michal (1 Sam. 19:14), and by David (1 Sam. 20:6).
The offspring of the divine command (Gen. 1:3). “All the more joyous emotions of the mind, all the pleasing sensations of the frame, all the happy hours of domestic intercourse were habitually described among the Hebrews under imagery derived from light” (1 Kings 11:36; Isa. 58:8; Esther 8:16; Ps. 97:11). Light came also naturally to typify true religion and the felicity it imparts (Ps. 119:105; Isa. 8:20; Matt. 4:16, etc.), and the glorious inheritance of the redeemed (Col. 1:12; Rev. 21:23-25). God is said to dwell in light inaccessible (1 Tim. 6:16). It frequently signifies instruction (Matt. 5:16; John 5:35). In its highest sense it is applied to Christ as the “Sun of righteousness” (Mal. 4:2; Luke 2:32; John 1:7-9). God is styled “the Father of lights” (James 1:17). It is used of angels (2 Cor. 11:14), and of John the Baptist, who was a “burning and a shining light” (John 5:35), and of all true disciples, who are styled “the light of the world” (Matt. 5:14).
Frequently referred to by the sacred writers (Nah. 1:3-6). Thunder and lightning are spoken of as tokens of God’s wrath (2 Sam. 22:15; Job 28:26; 37:4; Ps. 135:7; 144:6; Zech. 9:14). They represent God’s glorious and awful majesty (Rev. 4:5), or some judgment of God on the world (20:9).
(1.) Heb., pishet, pishtah, denotes “flax,” of which linen is made (Isa. 19:9); wrought flax, i.e., “linen cloth”, Lev. 13:47, 48, 52, 59; Deut. 22:11.
Flax was early cultivated in Egypt (Ex. 9:31), and also in Palestine (Josh. 2:6; Hos. 2:9). Various articles were made of it: garments (2 Sam. 6:14), girdles (Jer. 13:1), ropes and thread (Ezek. 40:3), napkins (Luke 24:12; John 20:7), turbans (Ezek. 44:18), and lamp-wicks (Isa. 42:3).
(2.) Heb. buts, “whiteness;” rendered “fine linen” in 1 Chr. 4:21; 15:27; 2 Chr. 2:14; 3:14; Esther 1:6; 8:15, and “white linen” 2 Chr. 5:12. It is not certain whether this word means cotton or linen.
(3.) Heb. bad; rendered “linen” Ex. 28:42; 39:28; Lev. 6:10; 16:4, 23, 32; 1 Sam. 2:18; 2 Sam. 6:14, etc. It is uniformly used of the sacred vestments worn by the priests. The word is from a root signifying “separation.”
(4.) Heb. shesh; rendered “fine linen” Ex. 25:4; 26:1, 31, 36, etc. In Prov. 31:22 it is rendered in Authorized Version “silk,” and in Revised Version “fine linen.” The word denotes Egyptian linen of peculiar whiteness and fineness (byssus). The finest Indian linen, the finest now made, has in an inch one hundred threads of warp and eighty-four of woof; while the Egyptian had sometimes one hundred and forty in the warp and sixty-four in the woof. This was the usual dress of the Egyptian priest. Pharaoh arrayed Joseph in a dress of linen (Gen. 41:42).
(5.) Heb. ‘etun. Prov. 7:16, “fine linen of Egypt;” in Revised Version, “the yarn of Egypt.”
(6.) Heb. sadin. Prov. 31:24, “fine linen;” in Revised Version, “linen garments” (Judg. 14:12, 13; Isa. 3:23). From this Hebrew word is probably derived the Greek word sindon, rendered “linen” in Mark 14:51, 52; 15:46; Matt. 27:59.
The word “linen” is used as an emblem of moral purity (Rev. 15:6). In Luke 16:19 it is mentioned as a mark of luxury.
As represented by Ezekiel (1-10) and John (Rev. 4, etc.), are the cherubim. They are distinguished from angels (Rev. 15:7); they join the elders in the “new song” (5:8, 9); they warn of danger from divine justice (Isa. 6:3-5), and deliver the commission to those who execute it (Ezek. 10:2, 7); they associate with the elders in their sympathy with the hundred and forty-four thousand who sing the new song (Rev. 14:3), and with the Church in the overthrow of her enemies (19:4).
They are supposed to represent mercy, as distinguished from justice, mercy in its various instrumentalities, and especially as connected with the throne of God, the “throne of grace.”
There are ten Hebrew words used in Scripture to signify locust. In the New Testament locusts are mentioned as forming part of the food of John the Baptist (Matt. 3:4; Mark 1:6). By the Mosaic law they were reckoned “clean,” so that he could lawfully eat them. The name also occurs in Rev. 9:3, 7, in allusion to this Oriental devastating insect.
Locusts belong to the class of Orthoptera, i.e., straight-winged. They are of many species. The ordinary Syrian locust resembles the grasshopper, but is larger and more destructive. “The legs and thighs of these insects are so powerful that they can leap to a height of two hundred times the length of their bodies. When so raised they spread their wings and fly so close together as to appear like one compact moving mass.” Locusts are prepared as food in various ways. Sometimes they are pounded, and then mixed with flour and water, and baked into cakes; “sometimes boiled, roasted, or stewed in butter, and then eaten.” They were eaten in a preserved state by the ancient Assyrians.
The devastations they make in Eastern lands are often very appalling. The invasions of locusts are the heaviest calamites that can befall a country. “Their numbers exceed computation: the hebrews called them ‘the countless,’ and the Arabs knew them as ‘the darkeners of the sun.’ Unable to guide their own flight, though capable of crossing large spaces, they are at the mercy of the wind, which bears them as blind instruments of Providence to the doomed region given over to them for the time. Innumerable as the drops of water or the sands of the seashore, their flight obscures the sun and casts a thick shadow on the earth (Ex. 10:15; Judg. 6:5; 7:12; Jer. 46:23; Joel 2:10). It seems indeed as if a great aerial mountain, many miles in breadth, were advancing with a slow, unresting progress. Woe to the countries beneath them if the wind fall and let them alight! They descend unnumbered as flakes of snow and hide the ground. It may be ‘like the garden of Eden before them, but behind them is a desolate wilderness. At their approach the people are in anguish; all faces lose their colour’ (Joel 2:6). No walls can stop them; no ditches arrest them; fires kindled in their path are forthwith extinguished by the myriads of their dead, and the countless armies march on (Joel 2:8, 9). If a door or a window be open, they enter and destroy everything of wood in the house. Every terrace, court, and inner chamber is filled with them in a moment. Such an awful visitation swept over Egypt (Ex. 10:1-19), consuming before it every green thing, and stripping the trees, till the land was bared of all signs of vegetation. A strong north-west wind from the Mediterranean swept the locusts into the Red Sea.”, Geikie’s Hours, etc., ii., 149.
Only once, in Rev. 1:10, was in the early Christian ages used to denote the first day of the week, which commemorated the Lord’s resurrection. There is every reason to conclude that John thus used the name. (See SABBATH.)
A public civil officer invested with authority. The Hebrew shophetim, or judges, were magistrates having authority in the land (Deut. 1:16, 17). In Judg. 18:7 the word “magistrate” (A.V.) is rendered in the Revised Version “possessing authority”, i.e., having power to do them harm by invasion. In the time of Ezra (9:2) and Nehemiah (2:16; 4:14; 13:11) the Jewish magistrates were called seganim, properly meaning “nobles.” In the New Testament the Greek word archon, rendered “magistrate” (Luke 12:58; Titus 3:1), means one first in power, and hence a prince, as in Matt. 20:25, 1 Cor. 2:6, 8. This term is used of the Messiah, “Prince of the kings of the earth” (Rev. 1:5). In Acts 16:20, 22, 35, 36, 38, the Greek term strategos, rendered “magistrate,” properly signifies the leader of an army, a general, one having military authority. The strategoi were the duumviri, the two praetors appointed to preside over the administration of justice in the colonies of the Romans. They were attended by the sergeants (properly lictors or “rod bearers”).
Region of Gog, the second of the “sons” of Japheth (Gen. 10:2; 1 Chr. 1:5). In Ezekiel (38:2; 39:6) it is the name of a nation, probably some Scythian or Tartar tribe descended from Japheth. They are described as skilled horsemen, and expert in the use of the bow. The Latin father Jerome says that this word denotes “Scythian nations, fierce and innumerable, who live beyond the Caucasus and the Lake Maeotis, and near the Caspian Sea, and spread out even onward to India.” Perhaps the name “represents the Assyrian Mat Gugi, or ‘country of Gugu,’ the Gyges of the Greeks” (Sayce’s Races, etc.).
Heb. man-hu, “What is that?” the name given by the Israelites to the food miraculously supplied to them during their wanderings in the wilderness (Ex. 16:15-35). The name is commonly taken as derived from man, an expression of surprise, “What is it?” but more probably it is derived from manan, meaning “to allot,” and hence denoting an “allotment” or a “gift.” This “gift” from God is described as “a small round thing,” like the “hoar-frost on the ground,” and “like coriander seed,” “of the colour of bdellium,” and in taste “like wafers made with honey.” It was capable of being baked and boiled, ground in mills, or beaten in a mortar (Ex. 16:23; Num. 11:7). If any was kept over till the following morning, it became corrupt with worms; but as on the Sabbath none fell, on the preceding day a double portion was given, and that could be kept over to supply the wants of the Sabbath without becoming corrupt. Directions concerning the gathering of it are fully given (Ex. 16:16-18, 33; Deut. 8:3, 16). It fell for the first time after the eighth encampment in the desert of Sin, and was daily furnished, except on the Sabbath, for all the years of the wanderings, till they encamped at Gilgal, after crossing the Jordan, when it suddenly ceased, and where they “did eat of the old corn of the land; neither had the children of Israel manna any more” (Josh. 5:12). They now no longer needed the “bread of the wilderness.”
This manna was evidently altogether a miraculous gift, wholly different from any natural product with which we are acquainted, and which bears this name. The manna of European commerce comes chiefly from Calabria and Sicily. It drops from the twigs of a species of ash during the months of June and July. At night it is fluid and resembles dew, but in the morning it begins to harden. The manna of the Sinaitic peninsula is an exudation from the “manna-tamarisk” tree (Tamarix mannifera), the el-tarfah of the Arabs. This tree is found at the present day in certain well-watered valleys in the peninsula of Sinai. The manna with which the people of Israel were fed for forty years differs in many particulars from all these natural products.
Our Lord refers to the manna when he calls himself the “true bread from heaven” (John 6:31-35; 48- 51). He is also the “hidden manna” (Rev. 2:17; comp. John 6:49,51).
Was instituted in Paradise when man was in innocence (Gen. 2:18-24). Here we have its original charter, which was confirmed by our Lord, as the basis on which all regulations are to be framed (Matt. 19:4, 5). It is evident that monogamy was the original law of marriage (Matt. 19:5; 1 Cor. 6:16). This law was violated in after times, when corrupt usages began to be introduced (Gen. 4:19; 6:2). We meet with the prevalence of polygamy and concubinage in the patriarchal age (Gen. 16:1-4; 22:21-24; 28:8, 9; 29:23-30, etc.). Polygamy was acknowledged in the Mosaic law and made the basis of legislation, and continued to be practised all down through the period of Jewish histroy to the Captivity, after which there is no instance of it on record.
It seems to have been the practice from the beginning for fathers to select wives for their sons (Gen. 24:3; 38:6). Sometimes also proposals were initiated by the father of the maiden (Ex. 2:21). The brothers of the maiden were also sometimes consulted (Gen. 24:51; 34:11), but her own consent was not required. The young man was bound to give a price to the father of the maiden (31:15; 34:12; Ex. 22:16, 17; 1 Sam. 18:23, 25; Ruth 4:10; Hos. 3:2) On these patriarchal customs the Mosaic law made no change.
In the pre-Mosaic times, when the proposals were accepted and the marriage price given, the bridegroom could come at once and take away his bride to his own house (Gen. 24:63-67). But in general the marriage was celebrated by a feast in the house of the bride’s parents, to which all friends were invited (29:22, 27); and on the day of the marriage the bride, concealed under a thick veil, was conducted to her future husband’s home.
Our Lord corrected many false notions then existing on the subject of marriage (Matt. 22:23-30), and placed it as a divine institution on the highest grounds. The apostles state clearly and enforce the nuptial duties of husband and wife (Eph. 5:22-33; Col. 3:18, 19; 1 Pet. 3:1-7). Marriage is said to be “honourable” (Heb. 13:4), and the prohibition of it is noted as one of the marks of degenerate times (1 Tim. 4:3).
The marriage relation is used to represent the union between God and his people (Isa. 54:5; Jer. 3:1-14; Hos. 2:9, 20). In the New Testament the same figure is employed in representing the love of Christ to his saints (Eph. 5:25-27). The Church of the redeemed is the “Bride, the Lamb’s wife” (Rev. 19:7-9).
One who bears witness of the truth, and suffers death in the cause of Christ (Acts 22:20; Rev. 2:13; 17:6). In this sense Stephen was the first martyr. The Greek word so rendered in all other cases is translated “witness.” (1.) In a court of justice (Matt. 18:16; 26:65; Acts 6:13; 7:58; Heb. 10:28; 1 Tim. 5:19). (2.) As of one bearing testimony to the truth of what he has seen or known (Luke 24:48; Acts 1:8, 22; Rom. 1:9; 1 Thess. 2:5, 10; 1 John 1:2).
Several words are so rendered in the Authorized Version. (1.) Those which are indefinite. (a) Hok, Isa. 5:14, elsewhere “statute.” (b) Mad, Job 11:9; Jer. 13:25, elsewhere “garment.” (c) Middah, the word most frequently thus translated, Ex. 26:2, 8, etc. (d) Mesurah, Lev. 19:35; 1 Chr. 23:29. (e) Mishpat, Jer. 30:11, elsewhere “judgment.” (f) Mithkoneth and token, Ezek. 45:11. (g) In New Testament metron, the usual Greek word thus rendered (Matt. 7:2; 23:32; Mark 4:24).
(2.) Those which are definite. (a) ‘Eyphah, Deut. 25:14, 15, usually “ephah.” (b) Ammah, Jer. 51:13, usually “cubit.” (c) Kor, 1 Kings 4:22, elsewhere “cor;” Greek koros, Luke 16:7. (d) Seah, Gen. 18:6; 1 Sam. 25:18, a seah; Greek saton, Matt. 13:33; Luke 13:21. (e) Shalish, “a great measure,” Isa. 40:12; literally a third, i.e., of an ephah. (f) In New Testament batos, Luke 16:6, the Hebrew “bath;” and choinix, Rev. 6:6, the choenix, equal in dry commodities to one-eighth of a modius.
Place of troops, originally one of the royal cities of the Canaanites (Josh. 12:21), belonged to the tribe of Manasseh (Judg. 1:27), but does not seem to have been fully occupied by the Israelites till the time of Solomon (1 Kings 4:12; 9:15).
The valley or plain of Megiddo was part of the plain of Esdraelon, the great battle-field of Palestine. It was here Barak gained a notable victory over Jabin, the king of Hazor, whose general, Sisera, led on the hostile army. Barak rallied the warriors of the northern tribes, and under the encouragement of Deborah (q.v.), the prophetess, attacked the Canaanites in the great plain. The army of Sisera was thrown into complete confusion, and was engulfed in the waters of the Kishon, which had risen and overflowed its banks (Judg. 4:5).
Many years after this (B.C. 610), Pharaohnecho II., on his march against the king of Assyria, passed through the plains of Philistia and Sharon; and King Josiah, attempting to bar his progress in the plain of Megiddo, was defeated by the Egyptians. He was wounded in battle, and died as they bore him away in his chariot towards Jerusalem (2 Kings 23:29; 2 Chr. 35:22-24), and all Israel mourned for him. So general and bitter was this mourning that it became a proverb, to which Zechariah (12:11, 12) alludes. Megiddo has been identified with the modern el-Lejjun, at the head of the Kishon, under the north-eastern brow of Carmel, on the south-western edge of the plain of Esdraelon, and 9 miles west of Jezreel. Others identify it with Mujedd’a, 4 miles south-west of Bethshean, but the question of its site is still undetermined.
Who is like God? (1.) The title given to one of the chief angels (Dan. 10:13, 21; 12:1). He had special charge of Israel as a nation. He disputed with Satan (Jude 1:9) about the body of Moses. He is also represented as warning against “that old serpent, called the Devil, and Satan, which deceiveth the whole world” (Rev. 12:7-9).
(2.) The father of Sethur, the spy selected to represent Asher (Num. 13:13).
(3.) 1 Chr. 7:3, a chief of the tribe of Issachar.
(4.) 1 Chr. 8:16, a Benjamite.
(5.) A chief Gadite in Bashan (1 Chr. 5:13).
(6.) A Manassite, “a captain of thousands” who joined David at Ziklag (1 Chr. 12:20).
(7.) A Gershonite Levite (1 Chr. 6:40).
(8.) The father of Omri (1 Chr. 27:18).
(9.) One of the sons of king Jehoshaphat (2 Chr. 21:2, 4). He was murdered by his brother Jehoram.
A thousand years; the name given to the era mentioned in Rev. 20:1-7. Some maintain that Christ will personally appear on earth for the purpose of establishing his kingdom at the beginning of this millennium. Those holding this view are usually called “millenarians.” On the other hand, it is maintained, more in accordance with the teaching of Scripture, we think, that Christ’s second advent will not be premillennial, and that the right conception of the prospects and destiny of his kingdom is that which is taught, e.g., in the parables of the leaven and the mustard-seed. The triumph of the gospel, it is held, must be looked for by the wider and more efficient operation of the very forces that are now at work in extending the gospel; and that Christ will only come again at the close of this dispensation to judge the world at the “last day.” The millennium will thus precede his coming.
The calling of the Gentiles into the Christian Church, so designated (Eph. 1:9, 10; 3:8-11; Col. 1:25-27); a truth undiscoverable except by revelation, long hid, now made manifest. The resurrection of the dead (1 Cor. 15:51), and other doctrines which need to be explained but which cannot be fully understood by finite intelligence (Matt. 13:11; Rom. 11:25; 1 Cor. 13:2); the union between Christ and his people symbolized by the marriage union (Eph. 5:31, 32; comp. 6:19); the seven stars and the seven candlesticks (Rev. 1:20); and the woman clothed in scarlet (17:7), are also in this sense mysteries. The anti-Christian power working in his day is called by the apostle (2 Thess. 2:7) the “mystery of iniquity.”
The church at Ephesus (Rev. 2:6) is commended for hating the “deeds” of the Nicolaitanes, and the church of Pergamos is blamed for having them who hold their “doctrines” (15). They were seemingly a class of professing Christians, who sought to introduce into the church a false freedom or licentiousness, thus abusing Paul’s doctrine of grace (comp. 2 Pet. 2:15, 16, 19), and were probably identical with those who held the doctrine of Baalam (q.v.), Rev. 2:14.
Various fragrant preparations, also compounds for medical purposes, are so called (Ex. 30:25; Ps. 133:2; Isa. 1:6; Amos 6:6; John 12:3; Rev. 18:13).
Is frequently mentioned in Scripture. The dove from the ark brought an olive-branch to Noah (Gen. 8:11). It is mentioned among the most notable trees of Palestine, where it was cultivated long before the time of the Hebrews (Deut. 6:11; 8:8). It is mentioned in the first Old Testament parable, that of Jotham (Judg. 9:9), and is named among the blessings of the “good land,” and is at the present day the one characteristic tree of Palestine. The oldest olive-trees in the country are those which are enclosed in the Garden of Gethsemane. It is referred to as an emblem of prosperity and beauty and religious privilege (Ps. 52:8; Jer. 11:16; Hos. 14:6). The two “witnesses” mentioned in Rev. 11:4 are spoken of as “two olive trees standing before the God of the earth.” (Comp. Zech. 4:3, 11-14.)
The “olive-tree, wild by nature” (Rom. 11:24), is the shoot or cutting of the good olive-tree which, left ungrafted, grows up to be a “wild olive.” In Rom. 11:17 Paul refers to the practice of grafting shoots of the wild olive into a “good” olive which has become unfruitful. By such a process the sap of the good olive, by pervading the branch which is “graffed in,” makes it a good branch, bearing good olives. Thus the Gentiles, being a “wild olive,” but now “graffed in,” yield fruit, but only through the sap of the tree into which they have been graffed. This is a process “contrary to nature” (11:24).
Olives, Mount of
So called from the olive trees with which its sides are clothed, is a mountain ridge on the east of Jerusalem (1 Kings 11:7; Ezek. 11:23; Zech. 14:4), from which it is separated by the valley of Kidron. It is first mentioned in connection with David’s flight from Jerusalem through the rebellion of Absalom (2 Sam. 15:30), and is only once again mentioned in the Old Testament, in Zech. 14:4. It is, however, frequently alluded to (1 Kings 11:7; 2 Kings 23:13; Neh. 8:15; Ezek. 11:23).
It is frequently mentioned in the New Testament (Matt. 21:1; 26:30, etc.). It now bears the name of Jebel et-Tur, i.e., “Mount of the Summit;” also sometimes called Jebel ez-Zeitun, i.e., “Mount of Olives.” It is about 200 feet above the level of the city. The road from Jerusalem to Bethany runs as of old over this mount. It was on this mount that Jesus stood when he wept over Jerusalem. “No name in Scripture,” says Dr. Porter, “calls up associations at once so sacred and so pleasing as that of Olivet. The ‘mount’ is so intimately connected with the private, the devotional life of the Saviour, that we read of it and look at it with feelings of deepest interest and affection. Here he often sat with his disciples, telling them of wondrous events yet to come, of the destruction of the Holy City; of the sufferings, the persecution, and the final triumph of his followers (Matt. 24). Here he gave them the beautiful parables of the ten virgins and the five talents (25); here he was wont to retire on each evening for meditation, and prayer, and rest of body, when weary and harassed by the labours and trials of the day (Luke 21:37); and here he came on the night of his betrayal to utter that wonderful prayer, ‘O my Father, if it be possible, let this cup pass from me: nevertheless not as I will, but as thou wilt’ (Matt. 26:39). And when the cup of God’s wrath had been drunk, and death and the grave conquered, he led his disciples out again over Olivet as far as to Bethany, and after a parting blessing ascended to heaven (Luke 24:50, 51; Acts 1:12).”
This mount, or rather mountain range, has four summits or peaks: (1) the “Galilee” peak, so called from a tradition that the angels stood here when they spoke to the disciples (Acts 1:11); (2) the “Mount of Ascension,” the supposed site of that event, which was, however, somewhere probably nearer Bethany (Luke 24:51, 52); (3) the “Prophets,” from the catacombs on its side, called “the prophets’ tombs;” and (4) the “Mount of Corruption,” so called because of the “high places” erected there by Solomon for the idolatrous worship of his foreign wives (1 Kings 11:7; 2 Kings 23:13; Vulg., “Mount of Offence”).
(Heb. tamar), the date-palm characteristic of Palestine. It is described as “flourishing” (Ps. 92:12), tall (Cant. 7:7), “upright” (Jer. 10:5). Its branches are a symbol of victory (Rev. 7:9). “Rising with slender stem 40 or 50, at times even 80, feet aloft, its only branches, the feathery, snow-like, pale- green fronds from 6 to 12 feet long, bending from its top, the palm attracts the eye wherever it is seen.” The whole land of Palestine was called by the Greeks and Romans Phoenicia, i.e., “the land of palms.” Tadmor in the desert was called by the Greeks and Romans Palmyra, i.e., “the city of palms.” The finest specimens of this tree grew at Jericho (Deut. 34:3) and Engedi and along the banks of the Jordan. Branches of the palm tree were carried at the feast of Tabernacles (Lev. 23:40). At our Lord’s triumphal entrance into Jerusalem the crowds took palm branches, and went forth to meet him, crying, “Hosanna: Blessed is the King of Israel that cometh in the name of the Lord” (Matt. 21:8; John 12:13).
A Persian word (pardes), properly meaning a “pleasure-ground” or “park” or “king’s garden.” (See EDEN.) It came in course of time to be used as a name for the world of happiness and rest hereafter (Luke 23:43; 2 Cor. 12:4; Rev. 2:7). For “garden” in Gen. 2:8 the LXX. has “paradise.”
A small rocky and barren island, one of the group called the “Sporades,” in the AEgean Sea. It is mentioned in Scripture only in Rev. 1:9. It was on this island, to which John was banished by the emperor Domitian (A.D. 95), that he received from God the wondrous revelation recorded in his book. This has naturally invested it with the deepest interest for all time. It is now called Patmo. (See JOHN.)
(Heb. gabish, Job 28:18; Gr. margarites, Matt. 7:6; 13:46; Rev. 21:21). The pearl oyster is found in the Persian Gulf and the Red Sea. Its shell is the “mother of pearl,” which is of great value for ornamental purposes (1 Tim. 2:9; Rev. 17:4). Each shell contains eight or ten pearls of various sizes.
The chief city of Mysia, in Asia Minor. One of the “seven churches” was planted here (Rev. 1:11; 2:17). It was noted for its wickedness, insomuch that our Lord says “Satan’s seat” was there. The church of Pergamos was rebuked for swerving from the truth and embracing the doctrines of Balaam and the Nicolaitanes. Antipas, Christ’s “faithful martyr,” here sealed his testimony with his blood.
This city stood on the banks of the river Caicus, about 20 miles from the sea. It is now called Bergama, and has a population of some twenty thousand, of whom about two thousand profess to be Christians. Parchment (q.v.) was first made here, and was called by the Greeks pergamene, from the name of the city.
Brotherly love, a city of Lydia in Asia Minor, about 25 miles south-east of Sardis. It was the seat of one of the “seven churches” (Rev. 3:7-12). It came into the possession of the Turks in A.D. 1392. It has several times been nearly destroyed by earthquakes. It is still a town of considerable size, called Allahshehr, “the city of God.”
A hole in the ground (Ex. 21:33, 34), a cistern for water (Gen. 37:24; Jer. 14:3), a vault (41:9), a grave (Ps. 30:3). It is used as a figure for mischief (Ps. 9:15), and is the name given to the unseen place of woe (Rev. 20:1, 3). The slime-pits in the vale of Siddim were wells which yielded asphalt (Gen. 14:10).
The Mosaic legislation regarding the poor is specially important. (1.) They had the right of gleaning the fields (Lev. 19:9, 10; Deut. 24:19,21).
(2.) In the sabbatical year they were to have their share of the produce of the fields and the vineyards (Ex. 23:11; Lev. 25:6).
(3.) In the year of jubilee they recovered their property (Lev. 25:25-30).
(4.) Usury was forbidden, and the pledged raiment was to be returned before the sun went down (Ex. 22:25-27; Deut. 24:10-13). The rich were to be generous to the poor (Deut. 15:7-11).
(5.) In the sabbatical and jubilee years the bond-servant was to go free (Deut. 15:12-15; Lev. 25:39-42, 47-54).
(6.) Certain portions from the tithes were assigned to the poor (Deut. 14:28, 29; 26:12, 13).
(7.) They shared in the feasts (Deut. 16:11, 14; Neh. 8:10).
(8.) Wages were to be paid at the close of each day (Lev. 19:13).
In the New Testament (Luke 3:11; 14:13; Acts 6:1; Gal. 2:10; James 2:15, 16) we have similar injunctions given with reference to the poor. Begging was not common under the Old Testament, while it was so in the New Testament times (Luke 16:20, 21, etc.). But begging in the case of those who are able to work is forbidden, and all such are enjoined to “work with their own hands” as a Christian duty (1 Thess. 4:11; 2 Thess. 3:7-13; Eph. 4:28). This word is used figuratively in Matt. 5:3; Luke 6:20; 2 Cor. 8:9; Rev. 3:17.
The Heb. kohen, Gr. hierus, Lat. sacerdos, always denote one who offers sacrifices.
At first every man was his own priest, and presented his own sacrifices before God. Afterwards that office devolved on the head of the family, as in the cases of Noah (Gen. 8:20), Abraham (12:7; 13:4), Isaac (26:25), Jacob (31:54), and Job (Job 1:5).
The name first occurs as applied to Melchizedek (Gen. 14:18). Under the Levitical arrangements the office of the priesthood was limited to the tribe of Levi, and to only one family of that tribe, the family of Aaron. Certain laws respecting the qualifications of priests are given in Lev. 21:16-23. There are ordinances also regarding the priests’ dress (Ex. 28:40-43) and the manner of their consecration to the office (29:1-37).
Their duties were manifold (Ex. 27:20, 21; 29:38-44; Lev. 6:12; 10:11; 24:8; Num. 10:1-10; Deut. 17:8-13; 33:10; Mal. 2:7). They represented the people before God, and offered the various sacrifices prescribed in the law.
In the time of David the priests were divided into twenty-four courses or classes (1 Chr. 24:7-18). This number was retained after the Captivity (Ezra 2:36-39; Neh. 7:39-42).
“The priests were not distributed over the country, but lived together in certain cities [forty- eight in number, of which six were cities of refuge, q.v.], which had been assigned to their use. From thence they went up by turns to minister in the temple at Jerusalem. Thus the religious instruction of the people in the country generally was left to the heads of families, until the establishment of synagogues, an event which did not take place till the return from the Captivity, and which was the main source of the freedom from idolatry that became as marked a feature of the Jewish people thenceforward as its practice had been hitherto their great national sin.”
The whole priestly system of the Jews was typical. It was a shadow of which the body is Christ. The priests all prefigured the great Priest who offered “one sacrifice for sins” “once for all” (Heb. 10:10, 12). There is now no human priesthood. (See Epistle to the Hebrews throughout.) The term “priest” is indeed applied to believers (1 Pet. 2:9; Rev. 1:6), but in these cases it implies no sacerdotal functions. All true believers are now “kings and priests unto God.” As priests they have free access into the holiest of all, and offer up the sacrifices of praise and thanksgiving, and the sacrifices of grateful service from day to day.
Caused by the reflection and refraction of the rays of the sun shining on falling rain. It was appointed as a witness of the divine faithfulness (Gen. 9:12-17). It existed indeed before, but it was then constituted as a sign of the covenant. Others, however (as Delitzsch, Commentary on Pentateuch), think that it “appeared then for the first time in the vault and clouds of heaven.” It is argued by those holding this opinion that the atmosphere was differently constituted before the Flood. It is referred to three other times in Scripture (Ezek. 1:27, 28; Rev. 4:1-3; 10:1).
The purchase back of something that had been lost, by the payment of a ransom. The Greek word so rendered is apolutrosis, a word occurring nine times in Scripture, and always with the idea of a ransom or price paid, i.e., redemption by a lutron (see Matt. 20:28; Mark 10:45). There are instances in the LXX. Version of the Old Testament of the use of lutron in man’s relation to man (Lev. 19:20; 25:51; Ex. 21:30; Num. 35:31, 32; Isa. 45:13; Prov. 6:35), and in the same sense of man’s relation to God (Num. 3:49; 18:15).
There are many passages in the New Testament which represent Christ’s sufferings under the idea of a ransom or price, and the result thereby secured is a purchase or redemption (comp. Acts 20:28; 1 Cor. 6:19, 20; Gal. 3:13; 4:4, 5; Eph. 1:7; Col. 1:14; 1 Tim. 2:5, 6; Titus 2:14; Heb. 9:12; 1 Pet. 1:18, 19; Rev. 5:9). The idea running through all these texts, however various their reference, is that of payment made for our redemption. The debt against us is not viewed as simply cancelled, but is fully paid. Christ’s blood or life, which he surrendered for them, is the “ransom” by which the deliverance of his people from the servitude of sin and from its penal consequences is secured. It is the plain doctrine of Scripture that “Christ saves us neither by the mere exercise of power, nor by his doctrine, nor by his example, nor by the moral influence which he exerted, nor by any subjective influence on his people, whether natural or mystical, but as a satisfaction to divine justice, as an expiation for sin, and as a ransom from the curse and authority of the law, thus reconciling us to God by making it consistent with his perfection to exercise mercy toward sinners” (Hodge’s Systematic Theology).
Resurrection of the dead
Will be simultaneous both of the just and the unjust (Dan. 12:2; John 5:28, 29; Rom. 2:6-16; 2 Thess. 1:6-10). The qualities of the resurrection body will be different from those of the body laid in the grave (1 Cor. 15:53, 54; Phil. 3:21); but its identity will nevertheless be preserved. It will still be the same body (1 Cor. 15:42-44) which rises again.
As to the nature of the resurrection body, (1) it will be spiritual (1 Cor. 15:44), i.e., a body adapted to the use of the soul in its glorified state, and to all the conditions of the heavenly state; (2) glorious, incorruptible, and powerful (54); (3) like unto the glorified body of Christ (Phil. 3:21); and (4) immortal (Rev. 21:4).
Christ’s resurrection secures and illustrates that of his people. ”(1.) Because his resurrection seals and consummates his redemptive power; and the redemption of our persons involves the redemption of our bodies (Rom. 8:23). (2.) Because of our federal and vital union with Christ (1 Cor. 15:21, 22; 1 Thess. 4:14). (3.) Because of his Spirit which dwells in us making our bodies his members (1 Cor. 6:15; Rom. 8:11). (4.) Because Christ by covenant is Lord both of the living and the dead (Rom. 14:9). This same federal and vital union of the Christian with Christ likewise causes the resurrection of the believer to be similar to as well as consequent upon that of Christ (1 Cor. 15:49; Phil. 3:21; 1 John 3:2).” Hodge’s Outlines of Theology.
An uncovering, a bringing to light of that which had been previously wholly hidden or only obscurely seen. God has been pleased in various ways and at different times (Heb. 1:1) to make a supernatural revelation of himself and his purposes and plans, which, under the guidance of his Spirit, has been committed to writing. (See WORD OF GOD.) The Scriptures are not merely the “record” of revelation; they are the revelation itself in a written form, in order to the accurate presevation and propagation of the truth.
Revelation and inspiration differ. Revelation is the supernatural communication of truth to the mind; inspiration (q.v.) secures to the teacher or writer infallibility in communicating that truth to others. It renders its subject the spokesman or prophet of God in such a sense that everything he asserts to be true, whether fact or doctrine or moral principle, is true, infallibly true.
Revelation, Book of
=The Apocalypse, the closing book and the only prophetical book of the New Testament canon. The author of this book was undoubtedly John the apostle. His name occurs four times in the book itself (1:1, 4, 9; 22:8), and there is every reason to conclude that the “John” here mentioned was the apostle. In a manuscript of about the twelfth century he is called “John the divine,” but no reason can be assigned for this appellation.
The date of the writing of this book has generally been fixed at A.D. 96, in the reign of Domitian. There are some, however, who contend for an earlier date, A.D. 68 or 69, in the reign of Nero. Those who are in favour of the later date appeal to the testimony of the Christian father Irenaeus, who received information relative to this book from those who had seen John face to face. He says that the Apocalypse “was seen no long time ago.”
As to the relation between this book and the Gospel of John, it has been well observed that “the leading ideas of both are the same. The one gives us in a magnificent vision, the other in a great historic drama, the supreme conflict between good and evil and its issue. In both Jesus Christ is the central figure, whose victory through defeat is the issue of the conflict. In both the Jewish dispensation is the preparation for the gospel, and the warfare and triumph of the Christ is described in language saturated with the Old Testament. The difference of date will go a long way toward explaining the difference of style.” Plummer’s Gospel of St. John, Introd.
Revelation of Christ
The second advent of Christ. Three different Greek words are used by the apostles to express this, (1) apokalupsis (1 Cor. 1;7; 2 Thess. 1:7; 1 Pet. 1:7, 13); (2) parousia (Matt. 24:3, 27; 1 Thess. 2:19; James 5:7, 8); (3) epiphaneia (1 Tim. 6:14; 2 Tim. 1:10; 4:1-8; Titus 2:13). There existed among Christians a wide expectation, founded on Matt. 24:29, 30, 34, of the speedy return of Christ. (See MILLENNIUM.)
The transliteration of the Hebrew word tsebha’oth, meaning “hosts,” “armies” (Rom. 9:29; James 5:4). In the LXX. the Hebrew word is rendered by “Almighty.” (See Rev. 4:8; comp. Isa. 6:3.) It may designate Jehovah as either (1) God of the armies of earth, or (2) God of the armies of the stars, or (3) God of the unseen armies of angels; or perhaps it may include all these ideas.
One separated from the world and consecrated to God; one holy by profession and by covenant; a believer in Christ (Ps. 16:3; Rom. 1:7; 8:27; Phil. 1:1; Heb. 6:10).
The “saints” spoken of in Jude 1:14 are probably not the disciples of Christ, but the “innumerable company of angels” (Heb. 12:22; Ps. 68:17), with reference to Deut. 33:2.
This word is also used of the holy dead (Matt. 27:52; Rev. 18:24). It was not used as a distinctive title of the apostles and evangelists and of a “spiritual nobility” till the fourth century. In that sense it is not a scriptural title.
Denotes, (1) the Holy Land (Ex. 15:17; comp. Ps. 114:2); (2) the temple (1 Chr. 22:19; 2 Chr. 29:21); (3) the tabernacle (Ex. 25:8; Lev. 12:4; 21:12); (4) the holy place, the place of the Presence (Gr. hieron, the temple-house; not the naos, which is the temple area, with its courts and porches), Lev. 4:6; Eph. 2:21, R.V., marg.; (5) God’s holy habitation in heaven (Ps. 102:19). In the final state there is properly “no sanctuary” (Rev. 21:22), for God and the Lamb “are the sanctuary” (R.V., “temple”). All is there hallowed by the Divine Presence; all is sancturary.
(Rev. 4:3, R.V., “sardius;” Heb. ‘odhem; LXX., Gr. sardion, from a root meaning “red”), a gem of a blood-red colour. It was called “sardius” because obtained from Sardis in Lydia. It is enumerated among the precious stones in the high priest’s breastplate (Ex. 28:17; 39:10). It is our red carnelian.
The metropolis of Lydia in Asia Minor. It stood on the river Pactolus, at the foot of mount Tmolus. Here was one of the seven Asiatic churches (Rev. 3:1-6). It is now a ruin called Sert-Kalessi.
(Rev. 21:20), a species of the carnelian combining the sard and the onyx, having three layers of opaque spots or stripes on a transparent red basis. Like the sardine, it is a variety of the chalcedony.
Adversary; accuser. When used as a proper name, the Hebrew word so rendered has the article “the adversary” (Job 1:6-12; 2:1-7). In the New Testament it is used as interchangeable with Diabolos, or the devil, and is so used more than thirty times.
He is also called “the dragon,” “the old serpent” (Rev. 12:9; 20:2); “the prince of this world” (John 12:31; 14:30); “the prince of the power of the air” (Eph. 2:2); “the god of this world” (2 Cor. 4:4); “the spirit that now worketh in the children of disobedience” (Eph. 2:2). The distinct personality of Satan and his activity among men are thus obviously recognized. He tempted our Lord in the wilderness (Matt. 4:1-11). He is “Beelzebub, the prince of the devils” (12:24). He is “the constant enemy of God, of Christ, of the divine kingdom, of the followers of Christ, and of all truth; full of falsehood and all malice, and exciting and seducing to evil in every possible way.” His power is very great in the world. He is a “roaring lion, seeking whom he may devour” (1 Pet. 5:8). Men are said to be “taken captive by him” (2 Tim. 2:26). Christians are warned against his “devices” (2 Cor. 2:11), and called on to “resist” him (James 4:7). Christ redeems his people from “him that had the power of death, that is, the devil” (Heb. 2:14). Satan has the “power of death,” not as lord, but simply as executioner.
Commonly a ring engraved with some device (Gen. 38:18, 25). Jezebel “wrote letters in Ahab’s name, and sealed them with his seal” (1 Kings 21:8). Seals are frequently mentioned in Jewish history (Deut. 32:34; Neh. 9:38; 10:1; Esther 3:12; Cant. 8:6; Isa. 8:16; Jer. 22:24; 32:44, etc.). Sealing a document was equivalent to the signature of the owner of the seal. “The use of a signet-ring by the monarch has recently received a remarkable illustration by the discovery of an impression of such a signet on fine clay at Koyunjik, the site of the ancient Nineveh. This seal appears to have been impressed from the bezel of a metallic finger- ring. It is an oval, 2 inches in length by 1 inch wide, and bears the image, name, and titles of the Egyptian king Sabaco” (Rawlinson’s Hist. Illus. of the O.T., p. 46). The actual signet-rings of two Egyptian kings (Cheops and Horus) have been discovered. (See SIGNET.)
The use of seals is mentioned in the New Testament only in connection with the record of our Lord’s burial (Matt. 27:66). The tomb was sealed by the Pharisees and chief priests for the purpose of making sure that the disciples would not come and steal the body away (ver. 63, 64). The mode of doing this was probably by stretching a cord across the stone and sealing it at both ends with sealing-clay. When God is said to have sealed the Redeemer, the meaning is, that he has attested his divine mission (John 6:27). Circumcision is a seal, an attestation of the covenant (Rom. 4:11). Believers are sealed with the Spirit, as God’s mark put upon them (Eph. 1:13; 4:30). Converts are by Paul styled the seal of his apostleship, i.e., they are its attestation (1 Cor. 9:2). Seals and sealing are frequently mentioned in the book of Revelation (5:1; 6:1; 7:3; 10:4; 22:10).
Sea of glass
A figurative expression used in Rev. 4:6 and 15:2. According to the interpretation of some, “this calm, glass-like sea, which is never in storm, but only interfused with flame, represents the counsels of God, those purposes of righteousness and love which are often fathomless but never obscure, always the same, though sometimes glowing with holy anger.” (Comp. Ps. 36:6; 77:19; Rom. 11:33-36.)
(Heb. yam), signifies (1) “the gathering together of the waters,” the ocean (Gen. 1:10); (2) a river, as the Nile (Isa. 19:5), the Euphrates (Isa. 21:1; Jer. 51:36); (3) the Red Sea (Ex. 14:16, 27; 15:4, etc.); (4) the Mediterranean (Ex. 23:31; Num. 34:6, 7; Josh. 15:47; Ps. 80:11, etc.); (5) the “sea of Galilee,” an inland fresh-water lake, and (6) the Dead Sea or “salt sea” (Gen. 14:3; Num. 34:3, 12, etc.). The word “sea” is used symbolically in Isa. 60:5, where it probably means the nations around the Mediterranean. In Dan. 7:3, Rev. 13:1 it may mean the tumultuous changes among the nations of the earth.
(Heb. nahash; Gr. ophis), frequently noticed in Scripture. More than forty species are found in Syria and Arabia. The poisonous character of the serpent is alluded to in Jacob’s blessing on Dan (Gen. 49:17; see Prov. 30:18, 19; James 3:7; Jer. 8:17). (See ADDER.)
This word is used symbolically of a deadly, subtle, malicious enemy (Luke 10:19).
The serpent is first mentioned in connection with the history of the temptation and fall of our first parents (Gen. 3). It has been well remarked regarding this temptation: “A real serpent was the agent of the temptation, as is plain from what is said of the natural characteristic of the serpent in the first verse of the chapter (3:1), and from the curse pronounced upon the animal itself. But that Satan was the actual tempter, and that he used the serpent merely as his instrument, is evident (1) from the nature of the transaction; for although the serpent may be the most subtle of all the beasts of the field, yet he has not the high intellectual faculties which the tempter here displayed. (2.) In the New Testament it is both directly asserted and in various forms assumed that Satan seduced our first parents into sin (John 8:44; Rom. 16:20; 2 Cor. 11:3, 14; Rev. 12:9; 20:2).” Hodge’s System. Theol., ii. 127.
(Heb., “the all-demanding world” = Gr. Hades, “the unknown region”), the invisible world of departed souls. (See HELL.)
Heb. demeshek, “damask,” silk cloth manufactured at Damascus, Amos 3:12. A.V., “in the corner of a bed, and in Damascus in a couch;” R.V., “in the corner of a couch, and on the silken cushions of a bed” (marg., “in Damascus on a bed”).
Heb. meshi, (Ezek. 16:10, 13, rendered “silk”). In Gen. 41:42 (marg. A.V.), Prov. 31:22 (R.V., “fine linen”), the word “silk” ought to be “fine linen.”
Silk was common in New Testament times (Rev. 18:12).
Jer. 2:14 (A.V.), but not there found in the original. In Rev. 18:13 the word “slaves” is the rendering of a Greek word meaning “bodies.” The Hebrew and Greek words for slave are usually rendered simply “servant,” “bondman,” or “bondservant.” Slavery as it existed under the Mosaic law has no modern parallel. That law did not originate but only regulated the already existing custom of slavery (Ex. 21:20, 21, 26, 27; Lev. 25:44-46; Josh. 9:6-27). The gospel in its spirit and genius is hostile to slavery in every form, which under its influence is gradually disappearing from among men.
Myrrh, an ancient city of Ionia, on the western coast of Asia Minor, about 40 miles to the north of Ephesus. It is now the chief city of Anatolia, having a mixed population of about 200,000, of whom about one- third are professed Christians. The church founded here was one of the seven addressed by our Lord (Rev. 2:8- 11). The celebrated Polycarp, a pupil of the apostle John, was in the second century a prominent leader in the church of Smyrna. Here he suffered martyrdom, A.D. 155.
Solomon, Song of
Called also, after the Vulgate, the “Canticles.” It is the “song of songs” (1:1), as being the finest and most precious of its kind; the noblest song, “das Hohelied,” as Luther calls it. The Solomonic authorship of this book has been called in question, but evidences, both internal and external, fairly establish the traditional view that it is the product of Solomon’s pen. It is an allegorical poem setting forth the mutual love of Christ and the Church, under the emblem of the bridegroom and the bride. (Compare Matt. 9:15; John 3:29; Eph. 5:23, 27, 29; Rev. 19:7-9; 21:2, 9; 22:17. Compare also Ps. 45; Isa. 54:4-6; 62:4, 5; Jer. 2:2; 3:1, 20; Ezek. 16; Hos. 2:16, 19, 20.)
Of Moses (Ex. 15; Num. 21:17; Deut. 32; Rev. 15:3), Deborah (Judg. 5), Hannah (1 Sam. 2), David (2 Sam. 22, and Psalms), Mary (Luke 1:46-55), Zacharias (Luke 1:68-79), the angels (Luke 2:13), Simeon (Luke 2:29), the redeemed (Rev. 5:9; 19), Solomon.
From the Latin sortiarius, one who casts lots, or one who tells the lot of others. (See DIVINATION.)
In Dan. 2:2 it is the rendering of the Hebrew mekhashphim, i.e., mutterers, men who professed to have power with evil spirits. The practice of sorcery exposed to severest punishment (Mal. 3:5; Rev. 21:8; 22:15).
Of God, his absolute right to do all things according to his own good pleasure (Dan. 4:25, 35; Rom. 9:15-23; 1 Tim. 6:15; Rev. 4:11).
A name figuratively given to Christ (Rev. 22:16; comp. 2 Pet. 1:19). When Christ promises that he will give the “morning star” to his faithful ones, he “promises that he will give to them himself, that he will give to them himself, that he will impart to them his own glory and a share in his own royal dominion; for the star is evermore the symbol of royalty (Matt. 2:2), being therefore linked with the sceptre (Num. 24:17). All the glory of the world shall end in being the glory of the Church.” Trench’s Comm.
The eleven stars (Gen. 37:9); the seven (Amos 5:8); wandering (Jude 1:13); seen in the east at the birth of Christ, probably some luminous meteors miraculously formed for this specific purpose (Matt. 2:2-10); stars worshipped (Deut. 4:19; 2 Kings 17:16; 21:3; Jer. 19:13); spoken of symbolically (Num. 24:17; Rev. 1:16, 20; 12:1).
Frequently referred to (1 Kings 10:2; 2 Chr. 3:6; 9:10; Rev. 18:16; 21:19). There are about twenty different names of such stones in the Bible. They are figuratively introduced to denote value, beauty, durability (Cant. 5:14; Isa 54:11, 12; Lam. 4:7).
Of the Hebrew was pointed, sometimes two- edged, was worn in a sheath, and suspended from the girdle (Ex. 32:27; 1 Sam. 31:4; 1 Chr. 21:27; Ps. 149:6: Prov. 5:4; Ezek. 16:40; 21:3-5).
It is a symbol of divine chastisement (Deut. 32:25; Ps. 7:12; 78:62), and of a slanderous tongue (Ps. 57:4; 64:3; Prov. 12:18). The word of God is likened also to a sword (Heb. 4:12; Eph. 6:17; Rev. 1:16). Gideon’s watchword was, “The sword of the Lord” (Judg. 7:20).
First used of the tabernacle, which is called “the temple of the Lord” (1 Sam. 1:9). In the New Testament the word is used figuratively of Christ’s human body (John 2:19, 21). Believers are called “the temple of God” (1 Cor. 3:16, 17). The Church is designated “an holy temple in the Lord” (Eph. 2:21). Heaven is also called a temple (Rev. 7:5). We read also of the heathen “temple of the great goddess Diana” (Acts 19:27).
This word is generally used in Scripture of the sacred house erected on the summit of Mount Moriah for the worship of God. It is called “the temple” (1 Kings 6:17); “the temple [R.V., ’house’] of the Lord” (2 Kings 11:10); “thy holy temple” (Ps. 79:1); “the house of the Lord” (2 Chr. 23:5, 12); “the house of the God of Jacob” (Isa. 2:3); “the house of my glory” (60:7); an “house of prayer” (56:7; Matt. 21:13); “an house of sacrifice” (2 Chr. 7:12); “the house of their sanctuary” (2 Chr. 36:17); “the mountain of the Lord’s house” (Isa. 2:2); “our holy and our beautiful house” (64:11); “the holy mount” (27:13); “the palace for the Lord God” (1 Chr. 29:1); “the tabernacle of witness” (2 Chr. 24:6); “Zion” (Ps. 74:2; 84:7). Christ calls it “my Father’s house” (John 2:16).
A city of Asia Minor, on the borders of Lydia and Mysia. Its modern name is Ak-hissar, i.e., “white castle.” Here was one of the seven churches (Rev. 1:11; 2:18-28). Lydia, the seller of purple, or rather of cloth dyed with this colour, was from this city (Acts 16:14). It was and still is famous for its dyeing. Among the ruins, inscriptions have been found relating to the guild of dyers in that city in ancient times.
Mentioned only in Rev. 18:12 among the articles which would cease to be purchased when Babylon fell. It was called citrus, citron wood, by the Romans. It was the Callitris quadrivalvis of botanists, of the cone-bearing order of trees, and of the cypress tribe of this order. The name of this wood is derived from the Greek word thuein, “to sacrifice,” and it was so called because it was burnt in sacrifices, on account of its fragrance. The wood of this tree was reckoned very valuable, and was used for making articles of furniture by the Greeks and Romans. Like the cedars of Lebanon, it is disappearing from the forests of Palestine.
Heb. pitdah (Ezek. 28:13; Rev. 21:20), a golden yellow or “green” stone brought from Cush or Ethiopia (Job 28:19). It was the second stone in the first row in the breastplate of the high priest, and had the name of Simeon inscribed on it (Ex. 28:17). It is probably the chrysolite of the moderns.
Tree of life
Stood also in the midst of the garden of Eden (Gen. 2:9; 3:22). Some writers have advanced the opinion that this tree had some secret virtue, which was fitted to preserve life. Probably the lesson conveyed was that life was to be sought by man, not in himself or in his own power, but from without, from Him who is emphatically the Life (John 1:4; 14:6). Wisdom is compared to the tree of life (Prov. 3:18). The “tree of life” spoken of in the Book of Revelation (Rev. 2:7; 22:2, 14) is an emblem of the joys of the celestial paradise.
A collection of families descending from one ancestor. The “twelve tribes” of the Hebrews were the twelve collections of families which sprang from the sons of Jacob. In Matt. 24:30 the word has a wider significance. The tribes of Israel are referred to as types of the spiritual family of God (Rev. 7).
Were of a great variety of forms, and were made of divers materials. Some were made of silver (Num. 10:2), and were used only by the priests in announcing the approach of festivals and in giving signals of war. Some were also made of rams’ horns (Josh. 6:8). They were blown at special festivals, and to herald the arrival of special seasons (Lev. 23:24; 25:9; 1 Chr. 15:24; 2 Chr. 29:27; Ps. 81:3; 98:6).
Cities were surrounded by walls, as distinguished from “unwalled villages” (Ezek. 38:11; Lev. 25:29-34). They were made thick and strong (Num. 13:28; Deut. 3:5). Among the Jews walls were built of stone, some of those in the temple being of great size (1 Kings 6:7; 7:9-12; 20:30; Mark 13:1, 2). The term is used metaphorically of security and safety (Isa. 26:1; 60:18; Rev. 21:12-20).
The Israelites had to take possession of the Promised Land by conquest. They had to engage in a long and bloody war before the Canaanitish tribes were finally subdued. Except in the case of Jericho and Ai, the war did not become aggressive till after the death of Joshua. Till then the attack was always first made by the Canaanites. Now the measure of the iniquity of the Canaanites was full, and Israel was employed by God to sweep them away from off the face of the earth. In entering on this new stage of the war, the tribe of Judah, according to divine direction, took the lead.
In the days of Saul and David the people of Israel engaged in many wars with the nations around, and after the division of the kingdom into two they often warred with each other. They had to defend themselves also against the inroads of the Egyptians, the Assyrians, and the Babylonians. The whole history of Israel from first to last presents but few periods of peace.
The Christian life is represented as a warfare, and the Christian graces are also represented under the figure of pieces of armour (Eph. 6:11-17; 1 Thess. 5:8; 2 Tim. 2:3, 4). The final blessedness of believers is attained as the fruit of victory (Rev. 3:21).
A symbol of purity (2 Chr. 5:12; Ps. 51:7; Isa. 1:18; Rev. 3:18; 7:14). Our Lord, at his transfiguration, appeared in raiment “white as the light” (Matt. 17:2, etc.).
Consisted of two vats or receptacles, (1) a trough (Heb. gath, Gr. lenos) into which the grapes were thrown and where they were trodden upon and bruised (Isa. 16:10; Lam. 1:15; Joel 3:13); and (2) a trough or vat (Heb. yekebh, Gr. hypolenion) into which the juice ran from the trough above, the gath (Neh. 13:15; Job 24:11; Isa. 63:2, 3; Hag. 2:16; Joel 2:24). Wine-presses are found in almost every part of Palestine. They are “the only sure relics we have of the old days of Israel before the Captivity. Between Hebron and Beersheba they are found on all the hill slopes; they abound in southern Judea; they are no less common in the many valleys of Carmel; and they are numerous in Galilee.” The “treading of the wine-press” is emblematic of divine judgment (Isa. 63:2; Lam. 1:15; Rev. 14:19, 20).
(Gr. Logos), one of the titles of our Lord, found only in the writings of John (John 1:1-14; 1 John 1:1; Rev. 19:13). As such, Christ is the revealer of God. His office is to make God known. “No man hath seen God at any time; the only begotten Son, which is in the bosom of the Father, he hath declared him” (John 1:18). This title designates the divine nature of Christ. As the Word, he “was in the beginning” and “became flesh.” “The Word was with God ” and “was God,” and was the Creator of all things (comp. Ps.33: 6; 107:20; 119:89; 147:18; Isa. 40:8).
The old objection against the doctrine of salvation by grace, that it does away with the necessity of good works, and lowers the sense of their importance (Rom. 6), although it has been answered a thousand times, is still alleged by many. They say if men are not saved by works, then works are not necessary. If the most moral of men are saved in the same way as the very chief of sinners, then good works are of no moment. And more than this, if the grace of God is most clearly displayed in the salvation of the vilest of men, then the worse men are the better.
The objection has no validity. The gospel of salvation by grace shows that good works are necessary. It is true, unchangeably true, that without holiness no man shall see the Lord. “Neither adulterers, nor thieves, nor covetous, nor drunkards” shall inherit the kingdom of God.
Works are “good” only when, (1) they spring from the principle of love to God. The moral character of an act is determined by the moral principle that prompts it. Faith and love in the heart are the essential elements of all true obedience. Hence good works only spring from a believing heart, can only be wrought by one reconciled to God (Eph. 2:10; James 2:18:22). (2.) Good works have the glory of God as their object; and (3) they have the revealed will of God as their only rule (Deut. 12:32; Rev. 22:18, 19).
Good works are an expression of gratitude in the believer’s heart (John 14:15, 23; Gal. 5:6). They are the fruits of the Spirit (Titus 2:10-12), and thus spring from grace, which they illustrate and strengthen in the heart.
Good works of the most sincere believers are all imperfect, yet like their persons they are accepted through the mediation of Jesus Christ (Col. 3:17), and so are rewarded; they have no merit intrinsically, but are rewarded wholly of grace.
Heb. la’anah, the Artemisia absinthium of botanists. It is noted for its intense bitterness (Deut. 29:18; Prov. 5:4; Jer. 9:15; Amos 5:7). It is a type of bitterness, affliction, remorse, punitive suffering. In Amos 6:12 this Hebrew word is rendered “hemlock” (R.V., “wormwood”). In the symbolical language of the Apocalypse (Rev. 8:10, 11) a star is represented as falling on the waters of the earth, causing the third part of the water to turn wormwood.
The name by which the Greeks designated it, absinthion, means “undrinkable.” The absinthe of France is distilled from a species of this plant. The “southernwood” or “old man,” cultivated in cottage gardens on account of its fragrance, is another species of it.
Homage rendered to God which it is sinful (idolatry) to render to any created being (Ex. 34:14; Isa. 2:8). Such worship was refused by Peter (Acts 10:25,26) and by an angel (Rev. 22:8,9).
(Matt. 4:13, 15; Rev. 7:8). See ZEBULUN.
Sunny; height, one of the eminences on which Jerusalem was built. It was surrounded on all sides, except the north, by deep valleys, that of the Tyropoeon (q.v.) separating it from Moriah (q.v.), which it surpasses in height by 105 feet. It was the south- eastern hill of Jerusalem.
When David took it from the Jebusites (Josh. 15:63; 2 Sam. 5:7) he built on it a citadel and a palace, and it became “the city of David” (1 Kings 8:1; 2 Kings 19:21, 31; 1 Chr. 11:5). In the later books of the Old Testament this name was sometimes used (Ps. 87:2; 149:2; Isa. 33:14; Joel 2:1) to denote Jerusalem in general, and sometimes God’s chosen Israel (Ps. 51:18; 87:5).
In the New Testament (see SION) it is used sometimes to denote the Church of God (Heb. 12:22), and sometimes the heavenly city (Rev. 14:1).
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